The American party never grew powerful enough to implement its bigoted policies.
The Know- Nothings gained strength in New England, New York, and Maryland, but the anti-Catholic movement subsided when the future of slavery became the focal issue of the 1850s.
While most Americans continued to work as farmers, a growing number found employment in textile mills, shoe factories, banks, railroads, retail stores, teaching, preaching, medicine, law, construction, and engi neering.
The nature of work for both men and women was changed by technological innovations and their social applications.
40 percent of Americans worked for wages by 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 Wage workers grew at the expense of skilled artisans and craftsmen who owned small shops where they made or repaired carriages, shoes, hats, saddles, silverware, jewelry, glass, ropes, furniture, boats, and a broad array of other products.
Blacksmiths, printers, and barrel makers were some of the skilled craftsmen.
As the number of factories and mil s increased, the number of self- employed craftsmen declined.
The low prices for similar products made in much larger numbers in factories and mass- production workshops made it hard for those who emphasized quality and craftsmanship in their custom- made products to compete.
The shift to mass manufacturing transformed the production of shoes.
Local customers used to make boots and shoes by hand.
The shoemakers work in Massachusetts.
In the early 19th century, the number and size of shoe shops increased in New England, largely due to the demand for inexpensive shoes, which were shipped south for the rapidly growing slave population.
The master shoemaker became a manager rather than an artisan as shoe shops were displaced by factories.
Instead of creating a shoe from start to finish, workers were given specific tasks such as cutting the leather or stitching the "uppers" onto the soles.
The skilled workers were forced to make the transition to mass production and a strict division of labor resented the change.
A Massachusetts worker said that the factory owners were self-centered and forced workers to follow their orders.
The Board of Health in Lynn, Massachusetts, reported in 1850 that the life expectancy of a shoe worker was less than that of a farmer.
These workers formed interest groups for their trades.
The first type of labor unions were trade associations.
They made sure politicians had tariffs to protect their industries from foreign imports, provided insurance benefits, and drafted regulations to improve working conditions.
They wanted to control the number of people in their profession so as to maintain wage levels.
The early labor unions were cut off from the outside world.
If an employer hired laborers who refused to join the union, the court said they could strike.
Until the 1820s, labor organizations took the form of local trade unions, each confined to one city and one craft or skil.
Organizations on a larger scale began to take hold in the 19th century.
National craft unions were established by shoemakers, printers, carpenters, and weavers.
Many tailoresses would join labor unions to fight for better working conditions in the textile industry.
Women formed unions.
Political organizations were formed by skilled workers.
Retail stores, printing shops, post offices, newspapers, schools, banks, law firms and medical practices were required in new towns.
Henry Day gave a lecture at the Western Reserve School of Medicine in 1849.
In the first half of the 19th century, teaching was one of the fastest growing professions.
The idea of free public education as the best way to transform children into disciplined, judicious citizens was promoted by Horace Mann of Massachusetts.
The number of schools exploded when many states agreed.
Mann helped create "normal schools" to train future teachers.
Public schools usually hire men at a young age as teachers.
The pay was so low that few stayed in the profession their entire career, but for many educated, young adults, teaching offered independence and social status, as well as an alternative to the rural isolation of farming.
Private academies were started by church groups and civic leaders.
Men who became lawyers started out teaching.
In exchange for their labors, they would learn the practice of law.
Unlike attorneys, physicians had little formal academic training.
Most were self taught or had assisted a physician for several years, while occasionally taking classes at the handful of medical schools.
Many of the self- styled physicians were "quacks" or frauds.
The public lost confidence in the medical profession due to this.
Engineering became the nation's largest profession for men after the industrial expansion of the United States.
It was necessary to build canals and railroads, develop machine tools and steam engines, and build roads, bridges, and factories.
The majority of women still work in the home or on a farm.
The only other professions that were readily available to them were nursing and teaching.
Middle class women did social service work.
A few women pursued careers that were dominated by men.
Despite the disapproval of the faculty, Elizabeth was admitted to the medical college in western New York.
In 1849, Elizabeth had the last laugh when she finished first, but later the United States would be awarded a medical degree.
The market- based economy that emerged during the first half of the 19th century helped spread the idea that individuals should have equal opportunities to succeed.
Equal outcomes did not assume equality of opportunity.
Americans wanted to be able to earn the same amount of wealth.
The same ideals that made so many white immigrants come to the United States were also appealing to African Americans and women.
The political arena would soon be filled with desires for equality of opportunity.
Progress in those arenas was slow.
The theme of political life in the first half of the 19th century would be the democratization of opportunities for white men, regardless of income or background, to vote and hold office.
Rural communities were connected to a worldwide marketplace through improvements in transportation and communication.
In the North, mil s and factories were powered first by water and then by steam engines.
Southern cotton was used to make clothing and bedding.
The growth of domestic manufacturing was encouraged by reducing imports of British cloth.
The number of Americans engaged in manufacturing increased between 1820 and 1840.
Increased commerce helped spur the growth of cities.
Urban areas held 16 percent of the country's population by 1860.
Millions of immi grants were given to America because of the promise of cheap land and good wages.
Almost one in four of the population was foreign born by the year 1844.
An influx of Irish Catholic families was caused by the potato famine.
German migrants, many of them Catholics and Jews, migrated to New York and Boston during the same time period, as they represented a significant portion of the urban population in the United States.
Most of the Swedes and Norwegians who arrived in large numbers moved to farming communities in the upper Midwest.
Not all Americans welcomed immigrants.
Artisans formed trade associations to lobby for their interests.
The number of people grew quickly.
By the mid- nineteenth century, women, African Americans, and immigrants began to demand equal social, economic, and political opportunities.
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Philadelphia butcher William White organized a parade to celebrate America's high- quality meats.
The new nationalism that emerged in America after the War of 1812 was captured in this watercolor by John Lewis Krimmel.
The British stopped interfering with American shipping after the War of 1812.
The United States can now exploit new markets around the globe.
Alex ander Hamilton's financial initiatives and the capitalistic energies of wealthy investors and entrepreneurs sparked America's dramatic eco nomic growth.
Prosperity came from the willingness of ordinary men and women to take risks, uproot families, use unstable paper money, and tinker with new machines, tools, and inventions.
By 1828, the young republic was poised to become a commercial nation connected by networks of roads and canals as well as regional economic relationships.
Nationalists promoted the interests of the country as a whole, an outlook that required each region to recognize that no single section could get all it wanted without threatening the survival of the nation.
Shipping, manufacturing, and commerce in the Northeast, slave-based agriculture in the South, and low land prices in the West were all priorities for many nationalists.
The expansion of slavery proved to be the most difficult issue to resolve.
Americans experienced a wave of patriotism after the War of 1812.
A post war surge of prosperity gave a widespread sense of optimism, and they had won their independence from Britain for a second time.
In a message to Congress in the late 19th century, President James Madison revealed how the war had changed his views on the role of the federal government.
Madison and other leading southern Republicans acted like nationalists rather than states' rights sectionalists.
Madison supported a larger army and navy, a new national bank, and tariffs to protect American manufacturers from foreign competition.
One New Englander commented after Madison's speech that the Republicans had out-Federalized Federalism.
The nation's finances fell into a mess after the First Bank of the United States' charter expired.
States began chartering local banks with little or no regulation, and their paper money flooded the economy with different currencies.
It was to handle all federal government funds without charge, lend the government up to $5 million upon demand, and pay it $1.5 million in return for issuing paper money and opening branches.
The debate over the B.U.S.
helped set the pattern of regional alignment.
The national bank was opposed by the west because it caters to eastern customers.
Clay argued that the new eco nomic circumstances made the national bank indispensable.
The New England Federalists were worried about the financial power of Philadelphia.
At the same time that unexpected events would steer Calhoun away from economic nationalism and towards a defiant embrace of states' rights, Webster would return to Congress as the champion of a much stronger national government.
The long controversy with Great Britain over shipping rights convinced most Americans of the need to develop their own manufacturing sector to end their dependence on imported British goods.
When America lost access to European goods during the War of 1812, efforts to develop iron and textile industries in New York and New England accelerated.
British companies flooded the U.S. markets with less expensive products, which hurt their American competitors.
In order to protect their infant industries from unfair British competition, northern manufacturers petitioned Congress for federal tariffs.
sectional grievances were worsened by the fact that tariffs benefited some regions more than others.
The debate over tariffs dominated national politics throughout the 19th century because they provided much of the annual federal revenue and because they benefited manufacturers rather than consumers.
The few southerners who voted for the tariffs hoped that the South would become a manufacturing center.
Within a few years, New England's manufacturing sector would roar ahead of the South, leading to an about- face and begin opposing tariffs.
The National Road connecting the Midwest with the East Coast was one of the ways the nation needed a network of roads.
The House was urged to fund internal improvements.
The western part of the country badly needed transportation infrastructure.
New England was expected to get the least from such projects.
Chief Justice John Marshall strengthened the powers of the federal government at the expense of states' rights in the Supreme Court.
The power of the federal government was strengthened by two major decisions made by the Supreme Court.
The charters are subject to modification.
New England refused to pay state taxes on B.U.S.
The state indicted a person.
The Supreme Court ruled that Congress had the authority to charter the B.U.S.
The states did not have the right to tax the national bank.
Marshall declared a federal law unconstitutional because of one great principle.
The watercolor of an early steamboat was painted by a Russian diplomat who was fascinated by early technological innovations and the unique culture of America.
The New York legislature granted Robert Fulton and Robert R. Liv ingston sole rights to operate steamboats in the state.
The exclusive right to ferry people and goods up the Hudson River between New York and New Jersey was given by Fulton and Livingston.
Under a federal license, Thomas was able to operate ships that competed with Ogden.
Marshall ruled that the federal license issued to Gibbons was in conflict with the state monopoly granted to Ogden.
John Marshall's judicial nationalism was detested by Thomas Jefferson.
Henry Clay, the powerful young Kentucky con gressman who would serve three terms as Speaker of the House before becoming a U.S. senator, came up with the term.
He said, "I don't know of any South, North, East, or West that I owe my loyalty to."
Clay wanted to give each region its top economic priority.
He argued that high tariffs on imports were needed to block the sale of British products in the United States and protect new industries in New England and New York from unfair foreign competition.
To convince western states to support tariffs, Clay first called for the fed eral government to use tariffs to build infrastructure in the frontier West.
His American System would raise prices for federal lands sold to the public and distribute the revenue from the land sales to the states to help finance more roads, bridges, and canals.
Clay supports the creation of a national currency and the regulation of the state and local banks.
Clay's program depended on the region's willingness to compromise.
It worked for a while.
Critics argued that higher prices for federal lands would discourage western migration and that tariffs benefited the northern manufacturing sector at the expense of southern and western farmers.
The Second B.U.S.
was feared by many westerners and southerners.
The senator predicted that cash- strapped western towns would be at the mercy of the national bank.
James Monroe was James Madison's successor at the end of his presidency.
Monroe defeated King in the electoral college by a large margin.
The "Virginia dynasty" of presidents continued.
Mon roe embarked on a goodwill tour of New England after he was inaugurated.
The heading "Era of Good Feelings" became a popular label for Monroe's administration.
He was wounded as he began holding a Virginia planter.
After studying law under Jefferson, Monroe served as a representative in the Virginia Assembly, as governor, as a representative in the Confederation Congress, as a U.S. senator, and as U.S. minister (ambassador) to Paris, Lon don, and Madrid.
He was both secretary of state and secretary of war during the War of 1812.
The Era of Good Feelings was ended by the financial Panic of 1819 and the political conflict over statehood for Missouri.
It was caused by too many people trying to get rich too quickly.
European demand for American products soared after the War of 1812, leading farmers and planters to increase production.
The federal government sold vast tracts of public land, which spurred reckless real estate speculation by people buying large parcels with the intention of reselling them.
Good weather in Europe led to a spike in crop production, which reduced the need to buy American commodities.
The prices for American farm products went down.
The British textile industry stopped buying American cotton in favor of cheaper cotton from other parts of the world, causing the Panic of 1819.
As the price of cotton fell and the flow of commerce slowed, banks began to fail and the unemployment rate went up.
The world demand for American goods was reduced because of cotton prices.
Most of the owners of new factories and mil s in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania struggled to find markets for their goods and to fend off more experienced foreign competitors.
distrust of banks and bank ers emerged as the financial panic deepened.
The paper money bubble is burst by Thomas Jefferson.
This is what you and I and every reasoning man do.
The financial panic became a depression due to other factors.
Land speculators had recklessly borrowed money to purchase more land.
Both speculators and settlers saw their income plummet because of the decline of land values.
The reckless lending practices of the new state banks compounded the problems.
More paper money was issued by the banks.
was caught up in the easy credit mania.
The Baltimore branch of the B.U.S.
was found to have extensive fraud in 1819.
The scandal led to the appointment of a former congressman as the bank's new president.
Cheves restored confidence in the national bank by forcing state banks to keep more gold coins in their vaults.
State banks put pressure on their debtors, who found it harder to get new loans.