Note 1: These notes were taken on the videos the college board provided. These are notes based on the first video, “Discussing Units 1-3… AP World History.” Basically, review.
Trade routes were important, due to their cultural and economic impacts. Trade routes allowed for people of other cultures to share/exchange traditions and food, even creating connections between empires. Trading things also made room for religion and disease to spread.
Indian Ocean Trade Routes
Empires would ensure that the military would accompany traders to keep them and the goods safe. Legal systems put in place to help resolve conflict between merchants over contracts, amongst other things.
Mali (West Africa)
Kingdoms in Americas
Political Fragments in Europe
The Song Dynasty began in 960 C.E. and fell in 1279. They were known for using imperialism to rule over China
Favored the Confucianism philosophy
Mandate of Heaven - a ruler is granted legitimacy or approved by divine powers above
Civil Service Examination was used to select govt. officials into higher positions
Chinese culture bloomed as well, with progress in architecture and art. In addition, Chinese writers wrote poetry and stories.
Compass and gunpowder was invented.
Paper money began to grow in popularity, along with both Buddhism and Confucianism.
After its fall, the Mongols took over with Kublai Khan in the ruling position, founding the Yuan Dynasty. He embraced Chinese culture, ruling for centuries until 1644.
Decline in kingdoms + empires
Increased trade > increased spread of bubonic plague
Bubonic plague spreads thru out Asia, Africa and Europe
Spread of culture, language as well as disease
Ming Dynasty rules after, Qing Dynasty after Ming
Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
Religious changes: School of Buddhism, Protestant reformation, emergence of sikhism, sunni/shia rivalry ongoing
Ottomans rose to power in the 1300’s
Took over the Byzantine Empire with their conquest of Constantinople in 1453
Founded in the 600s by Mohammed
Holy Book: Quran
Law system: Sharia Law
Under the Abbasid Caliphate, art and science progressed
Art strongly influenced, as Muslim leaders decided what form of art was acceptable.
Quran doesn’t allow the worship of images
Therefore, art was shapes and patterns
Sufism grew in popularity
Algebra is invented
Diaspora - A population of specific culture or religion that has spread out in location, forced to live outside of their indigenous lands. (examples: Jewish people, Muslims, Native Americans)
Sultan - Muslim sovereign (muslim monarch)