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Chapter 115: Chapter Summary
The chapter was an introduction to Big Idea: EVO.
The current system of classification is based on evolutionary history.
All organisms are linked by lines of descent from a common ancestor because they share many conserved processes.
Both genes are universal.
They have the same genetic code.
All organisms are placed into one of the three domains.
Organisms are grouped in a hierarchy of categories called taxa.
The most diverse grouping is the taxon.
Our system of classification requires that the scientific name of every organisms has two parts; the genus name and the species name.
A red maple tree is called acer rubrum.
A diagrammatic reconstruction is a model of evolutionary history.
They can be built in a variety of ways.
Out groups are not closely related to the in groups and are on a separate clade.
For comparison, out groups are included.
All organisms are descendants of their ancestors and have evolved new and different characteristics.
The shared ancestral traits and new derived traits are what the organisms share with their ancestors.
All organisms that share a trait are located on one branch.
You should be able to analyze and evaluate a tree.
The data used to construct the tree is presented in the study.
Our system of classification is presented in a pyramid.
The table below shows the presence or absence of five derived traits in four different species.
Assume that the ancestor had a long tail, ear flaps, external testes, and fixed claws.
Each taxon has fewer and fewer different species as you move down the pyramid.
Organisms are classified by their evolutionary history.
Every type of organisms is in the pyramid.
The organisms are named in the same way, with two names.
The prokaryotes are grouped into two categories:bacteria and Archaea.
Plants are not the only organisms that are photosynthetic.
There are organisms.
The cell walls of fungi are made of chitin.
The prokaryotes and archaea are thought to have differed in ancient times.
One of the ways in which the two differ is in their nucleic acids.
They digest food outside of the body.
This is a type of digestion.
When the food is broken down into building blocks, it is absorbed into the body of the organisms.
The fish do not descend from sharks.
They have a distant common ancestor.
Crocodiles and rodents are not related to one another.
The fact that the animals are near each other is not indicative of a relationship.
The primate and rodents and rabbits can change their position on this cladogram.
It needs to be separated from the others.
All the other species have the same trait.
The cladogram must show Trait 1 below all of them.
Only Species A and B have trait 2.
They need to be off on a line and above the 2nd line.
You'll see that only Species B has Trait 3, so it must be diverted off on a line above it.
No other species has the same trait as Species D. It is necessary for Species D to be above the other two, below the other one, and above the other one because it does have those traits.
There are short tail and abdominal testes.
Loss of ear flaps is a new trait that is not shared with the previous organisms.
The derived trait of retractable claws implies that all other organisms have fixed claws.
The earthworm doesn't have any of the traits listed in the table, so it must be placed in a clade separate from the other animals.
The three remaining animals have the same trait, "backbone," but the salmon has no other trait listed in the table.
The lizard and cat have legs, so their clades must be derived from that trait.
The cat has its own hair and is on its own.
They are the most closely related animals.
Frogs don't have an amnion.
They need to lay their eggs in a moist area so they don't dry out.
Bass, turtles, and leopards descended from an ancestors that had a hinged jaw.
Bass did not descend from an animal with four legs.
The animal that brought the lancelet down did not have a backbone.
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