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33.2 The Four Basic Forces
This is a valid question today.
Hundreds of particles have been discovered, but the roles of some are not fully understood.
There are various patterns and relations that have led to profound insights into nature's secrets.
There are only four basic forces in nature, as first discussed in Problem-Solving Strategies and mentioned at various points in the text since then.
Considering the many phenomena they explain, this is a small number.
Particle physics is tied to the four forces.
All particles can be classified according to which of the four forces they feel.
The characteristics of the four basic forces are summarized in a table.
The first image shows the exchange of a virtual photon that carries a strong nuclear force between charges.
The second image shows that the photon can't be directly observed in its passage because it would disrupt the force.
It doesn't get to the other charge.
It was first observed in 1983.
Direct evidence of existence was proposed.
The exchange of a virtual photon between two positive charges is shown in the diagram.
Time is graphed vertically while the distance is graphed horizontally.
The two positive charges are repelled by the photon exchange.
We can see similarities between the four forces under all but the most extreme circumstances.
The forces are all transmitted by the exchange of a carrier particle, which is exactly what Yukawa wanted for the strong nuclear force.
The carrier particle cannot be directly observed.
The force of the photon cannot be directly observed because it would be disrupted.
The exchange of a virtual photon between two positive charges is shown in Figure 33.5.
Feynman diagrams can be used to visualize interactions at the quantum mechanical level, as well as calculate details of interactions, such as their strengths and probability of occurring.
QED has been able to describe interactions on the submicroscopic scale.
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He shared the prize with two other people for their work in QED.
The carrier particles are thought to be fundamental because they don't have a structure.
There is a similarity between carrier particles and bosons.
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