The war took fifteen months and took place in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska.
More soldiers were killed than Indians, but the Native Americans were defeated.
In June 1876, after several indecisive encounters, Custer found a large group of people on the Little Bighorn River in the southeast corner of the Montana Territory.
Ignoring the warnings of his scouts, Custer split his force in two and attacked the age on June 25.
He shouted, "Hurrah boys, we've got them," but he didn't really mean how many they were.
After a half hour, the horse soldiers were all dead.
As he fired his last bullet, he laughed and was hit in the head and heart.
Two of his brothers and a brother- in- law were also dead.
The sewing needles were used to pierce Custer's eardrums because he had failed to listen to their warnings to stay out of their ancestral lands.
Amos Bad Heart Bull is an artist and historian.
The Sioux won their greatest battle, but they had to make sure that they lost the war.
President Grant and Congress abandoned the peace policy after learning of the Battle of Little Bighorn.
The former Confederates wrote to the president.
The army quickly regained the offensive and pursued the Indians across Montana.
Food supplies were burned and warriors were killed.
While her husband and two sons were fighting, she ran away with her daughters.
She remembered that her husband was walking, leading his horse, and stopping to shoot.
I saw him suddenly.
She last saw her husband in the snow.
The Native Americans were forced back onto reservations.
Many died of disease or starvation.
The chiefs of the Dakota reservation agreed to sell the Black Hils to the U.S. government by the end of 1876.
Crazy Horse and his people surrendered in the spring of 1877.
The fate of Native Americans was uncertain after the Great Sioux War.
The decimation of the buffalo herds was the result of the Indian resistance.
30 million buffalo lived in the plains in the 17th century.
The construction of railroads through buffalo country brought hundreds of hunters who shipped huge numbers of hides to the East, where consumers developed a demand for buffalo robes, buffalo leather, and trophy heads.
The average hunter kills 100 buffalo a day.
The story is more complex.
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the grassland that the animals depended on was reduced due to a long dry spell.
The buffalo had to compete for food with other animals, while the horses were free to roam.
After 1840, the buffalo herds were decimated by the Plains Indians themselves because of their profits from selling hides and meat to white traders.
The buffalo would probably have lasted less than 30 years if there had been no white hunters.
The Plains Indians had little choice but to settle on government reservations because of the disappearance of the buffalo.
The story of resistance to white intrud ers was told many times in the west to the Pacific Ocean.
The Indians were the last obstacle to white western expansion.
They had to leave their homes in Montana.
The Modoc held out for six months before they were overwhelmed in the war.
The Utes were forced to give up their vast territories in western Colorado in 1879.
In order to find safety in Canada, Joseph led 650 of his people on a 1,300-mile journey through Montana in 1877.
He was recognized as a strong, eloquent American force in the Southwest for his voice against the injustices suffered by Native Americans.
The last major battle between Indians and American soldiers occurred at the end of the 19th century.
Wovoka, or Jack Wilson, was a Paiute in western Nevada.
He thought he was in the spirit world, where a deliverer would save the Indians and restore their lands.
He said that the Indians needed to perform a ceremonial dance wearing "ghost shirts" that would make them bulletproof.
Pros perity and peace were brought about by the Ghost Dance craze, which fed upon old legends of the dead.
The practice alarmed white authorities because of its passion.
Indi ans are dancing in the snow and are crazy, reported a government agent at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.
The Indian Bureau banned the Ghost Dance ceremony, but the Indians refused to comply.
There was a bloodbath at an Indian camp in South Dakota on December 29, 1890.
The Indians were told to surrender their weapons.
The soldiers were convinced that there were more weapons.
When a shot rang out, the medicine man began dancing the Ghost Dance.
Soldiers began firing into a group of Indians.
The Battle of Wounded Knee claimed the lives of more than 150 Indians.
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The court of inquiry found that the massacre was not covered up.
The Congressional Medal of Honor was given to twenty soldiers.
The Indian wars were characterized by brutality and misunderstanding.
"We took away their country and their means of support, broke up their mode of living, introduced disease and decay among them", was how General Philip Sheridan summed up how whites had treated the Indians.
Politicians and religious leaders condemned the treatment of Indians.
As a result of Jackson's book, the U.S. policies gradually improved but did little to improve the Indians' living conditions.
Housing and feeding Indians on reservations cost less than fighting them.
White reformers wanted to "Americanize" Indians by forcing them to become self reliant farmers, rather than allowing them to be members of nomadic bands or tribes.
The lands were divided into 160 acres for each head of a family and less for others.
Indians lost 86 million acres between 1887 and 1934.
The end of Native American resistance was one of several developments that suggested the New West was different from the Old West.
Other indicators of the region's transformation led some scholars to conclude that American society had reached a turning point.
The frontier era was over in the 1890 national census data.
The national character has been shaped by the experience of taming and settling the frontier.
The American intellect owes its charac teristics to the frontier.
That coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness; that practical, inventive turn of mind, quick to find expedients; that masterful grasp of material things, lacking in the artis tic but powerful to effect great ends; and that dominant individualism.
The popular imagination was gripped by Turner's view of the frontier.
He ignored the role of women, African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Asians in shaping the western United States.
Turner showed the evidence of greed, exploitation, and failure in the settlement of the West.
America would be different after 1890 because of the frontier experience.
The West has retained the qualities associated with the rush for land, gold, timber, and water rights.
The South and West were very different by 1900.
The emergence of a New South and a New West was spurred by changed eco nomic conditions.
Commercial agriculture changed the dynamics of farming in the West.
The Chinese immigrants were paid less than their white counterparts.
Anti- Chinese violence, including the Rock Springs massacre of 1885, led to continued work in the mines.
They were treated the same as the white and black sharecroppers.
As discontent rose among farmers and farmworkers in the South and the West, many joined the People's party, a grassroots social and political movement that was sweeping the poor rural regions of the nation.
The Populist movement would try to wrest political control from the Republicans in the Northeast and Midwest.
The shape of twentieth century politics would be determined by that struggle.
Before the Civil War, cotton dominated the southern economy.
The crop- liens system kept millions in debt and limited where they could live.
Jim Crow laws segregating blacks and whites in public facilities were instituted by southern states in the 1890s.
Poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests, and residency requirements made voting nearly impossible for most African Americans and some poor whites in the South.
lynching was the most gruesome form of violence against African Americans who resisted.
African Americans in the South strengthened their social institutions.
The promise of cheap land or wealth from mining drew settlers from the East.
The majority of those who moved to the West were men.
Migrants to the West were attracted to opportunities to work on the railroads.
Lower grain prices and the need for expensive machinery and transportation made it difficult for farmers on the Great Plains to make money.
Native Americans were no longer free to roam the plains by 1900 as the influx of miners, ranchers, farmers, and soldiers reduced their traditional way of life.
Most whites in the West were against the Native Americans.
The frontier era was declared over by Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893.
The nation's primary source of dem ocratic politics and rugged individualism were found in the western- moving frontier of white settlement.
The South had agricultural resources concentrated in the hands of a few.
Poor farmers in the West joined with tenant farmers in the South to support the Populist party in the 1890s.
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The scene of early- twentieth century life in New York City was captured by GeorgeWesley Bellows.
After the Civil War, American life changed dramatically.
An agricultural Stalemate has become an urban and industrialized nation deeply entwined in world markets and international politics.
The period from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of the Rural Revolt century saw a widening social, economic, and political gap between the powerful and the powerless.
The United States became a nation dominated by rapidly growing cities between 1865 and 1900.
The urban population went from 8 million to 30 million.
European and Asian immigrants, as well as migrants from America's rural areas, streamed into cities, attracted by plentiful jobs.
The adoption of new agricultural machinery pushed many off the land.
Four men can now do the farmwork that was previously required.
New towns were formed around mines and railroad junctions by the end of the 19th century.
Other migrants who were bored by rural or small town life moved to cities in search of more excitement.
America became an urban society.
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and others are large cities in the Northeast and Mid west.
Most city dwellers had little or no money.
They were forced to live in hovels that looked like prisons.
Researchers made discoveries that improved living conditions, public health, economic productivity, and communications during the last quarter of the 19th century.
Public support for higher education was stimulated by modern science, but it also opened up doubts about many long- accepted "truths" and religious beliefs.
The second half of the 19th century saw more and more people questioning the truth of the Bible.
City buildings were able to hold on to their populations because of advances in technology.
The construction of large apartment buildings was financially feasible in the 1870s due to the use of steam radiators, instead of coal-burning fireplaces.
Before the 1860s, most structures were less than six stories.
The first electric elevator was installed by the Otis Elevator Company in 1889.
Horse drawn streetcars and commuter rail ways allowed people to live farther away from their downtown workplace as cities grew out as well as up.
San Francisco became the first city to use cable cars in the 19th century.
Electric trolleys were preferred over steam- powered trains in the 1890s.
Mass transit got a boost from underground trains built in Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia.
Many of the working poor could not afford to leave the inner cities.
As their populations grew, cities became dangerously congested and plagued with fires, violent crimes, and diseases.
New York City doubled in size between 1860 and 1890 so fast that basic services couldn't keep up.
Electric lights, streetcars, telephones, department stores, theaters, and many other attractionslured rural dwellers to big cities.
They traded one set of problems for another.
They usually housed twenty- four to thirty- two families, with lots of children who had few places to play except in the streets.
Poverty, unsanitary living conditions, and new forms of political corruption were some of the problems brought about by the growth of cities.
How to feed, shelter, and educate the new city dwellers taxed the imaginations and resources of government officials.
Neighborhoods were divided by racial and ethnic background as well as social class.
The cities of the late 19th century were filthy.
There were dead animals and contaminated water in the streets.
Tobacco spit spread Tuberculosis.
There were infectious diseases caused by Gar bage and raw sewage being dumped into the streets and waterways.
The child mortality rate in tenements was high.
Three of every five babies died before their first birthday in a poor Chicago district at the end of the century.
Garbage carts were used to retrieve trash in New York City.
Regulations requiring more space per resident as well as more win dows and plumbing facilities were created by sanitary reformers.
Reformers pushed for modern water and sewage systems.
They wanted to ban slaughters and hogs and cattle in the city.
After the Civil War, America's prosperity and promise of political and religious freedom attracted waves of immigrants from all over the world.
30 percent of the city's residents were foreign born by 1900.
Most of the newcomers were poor people who wanted to live in the U.S.
They had a distinctive work ethic.
It's bad to work only to sur vive.
labor gives a fierce dignity when working for a better life for oneself and one's children and grandchildren The new immigrants were endowed with dignity and an optimistic energy.
The influx of immigrants sparked racial and ethnic tensions.
Immigration is one of the most powerful and controversial forces in Amer ican development.
Between 1860 and 1900, as more and more foreigners arrived from eastern and southern Europe, this was true.
The number of immigrants rose from 3 million in the 1870s to 5 million in the 1880s.
In the first decade of the twenti eth century, nearly 9 million people came to the United States.
Four out of five New Yorkers were foreign born in 1890.
Chicago was not far behind.
Rapidly growing industries sent agents abroad to lure low- wage workers to the United States.
Immigrants' travel expenses were paid for by the federal government under the Contract Labor Act.
The law was repealed in 1868 but not until 1885, when it was stopped from being used to import foreign workers.
Protes tants and Roman Catholics from northern and western Europe were the majority of the so- called "old immigrants" who came before 1880.
The largest ethnic population in America by 1900 were from the Political Stalemate and Rural Revolt.
The United States had 490 German-language newspapers by 1910.
The proportion of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe rose during the last quarter of the 19th century.
A majority of arrivals were made up of that.
Their languages and cultural background were vastly different from those of previous immigrants.
Judaism, Eastern Orthodox, and Roman Catholicism were the main religions of the new immigrants.
Immigrants headed West after arriving in New York.
45 percent of the people in North Dakota were foreign born by 1890.
Congress built a reception center on Ellis Island to accommodate the growing number of immigrants passing through New York City.
The registry room is where immigrants are questioned by officials.
The South was unattractive to immigrants.
Between 1860 and 1900, the percentage of foreign born residents in the states of the former Confederacy declined.
The national average of immi grants was 15 percent, but only 2 percent of southerners were.
The low wages, racial dynamics, and widespread poverty of the South made newcomers avoid it.
The changes in immigration patterns were examined by the commission.
The commission concluded that immigrants from southern and eastern Europe posed a social and cultural threat to America.
About one third of those over 14 years of age admitted to being uneducated.
Immigrants were poor and needed to find jobs quickly.
Many were greeted at the docks by family and friends, others were met by representatives of immigrant- aid societies or by company agents who offer low- paying and often dangerous jobs in mines, mil s, sweatshops, and on railroads.
Immigrants were easy targets for exploitation because they did not know much about American employment practices.
In exchange for a bit of whiskey and a job, many lost a large percentage of their wages.
Immigrants were given train tickets to inland cities such as Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and St. Louis.
As strangers in a new land, most immigrants wanted to live in neigh borhoods populated by people from their homeland.
The largest cities had vibrant immigrant districts with names such as Little Italy, Little Hungary, and Chinatown, where immigrants maintained their native religions and customs and spoke and read newspapers in their native languages.
They paid a price for being part of a solidarity community.
When new immi grants moved into an area, the previous residents often moved out, taking with them whatever social prestige and political influence they had achieved.
The living conditions deteriorated when owners failed to abide by the codes.
Many native- born Ameri cans saw the newest immigrants as a threat to their jobs and way of life.
Racists believed that people of British or Germanic ancestry were superior to newcomers.
Most of the Chinese people in California lived in the late 19th century.
They were the first non- European and non- African group to migrate to America.
Chinese immigrants were easy targets for discrimination because they were not white, Christian or literate.
Chinese labor ers were willing to do menial work that whites refused to do, despite the fact that whites resented them for taking their jobs.
John was a young Chinese immigrant when he arrived in San Francisco.
Similar treatment was experienced by another Chinese newcomer.
White Californians wanted an end to Chinese immigration.
Immigration policies were left up to the states.
The Page Act was the first federal law intended to restrict "undesirable" immigration.
It was the first federal law to restrict the immigration of free people on the basis of their race and class.
The act that prevented Chinese laborers from entering the country for ten years was renewed annually.
The golden door welcoming foreigners to the United States began to close after the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Barriers to Chinese immigration were removed in 1943.
The Chinese were not the only group that was targeted.
The American Protective Association was formed by Protestant activists in Iowa in the late 19th century.
The APA quickly enlisted 2.5 million members and helped shape the 1894 election results in Ohio, Wisconsin, Indiana, Missouri, and Colorado.
In 1891, nativists in New England formed the Immigration Restriction League to save the Anglo- Saxon race from being "con taminated" by immigrants.
Congress was persuaded by the League to ban uneducated immigrants.
There were three presidents who vetoed such bil s: Grover Cleveland in 1897, William H. Taft in 1913, and Woodrow Wilson in 1915 and 1917.
The last time, Congress banned immigrants who were not literate.
Recreation and leisure changed as a result of the flood of people into the cities.