Theory of mind is a key cognitive ability that develops in childhood.
Children can understand that other people see the world differently than they do.
It is not the same as egocentrism.
A child under the age of four opens a container labeled "pencils" and finds gumballs instead.
The child is asked what another child would think is in the container.
The absence of theory of mind helps explain the actions of people with the condition, according to psychologists.
Another influential theory of cognitive development was proposed by Lev Vygotsky.
The driving force in development was believed to be biological maturation.
Social factors were stressed by Vygotsky.
Vygotsky believed that much of development occurs by internalization, the absorption of knowledge into the self from environmental and social contexts.
The zone of proximal development is the range between the developed level of ability that a child displays and the potential level of ability that the child is actually capable of.
The actual development level is referred to as the potential development level.
The ability to live up to its potential is dependent on input from the environment.
According to Vygotsky, a child's potential is realized through the process of scaffolding.
The support system that allows a person to move across a zone of development is called scaffolding.
It might mean that the steps are too high if a person fails to advance.
Wisdom is a feature of adult cognitive development.
Many cultures assume that older members of a society have a level of accumulated knowledge that gives them wisdom.
Good judgments about difficult life problems can be made through wisdom, a form of insight into life situations and conditions.
Cognitive development continues into adulthood according to life-span psychologists.
Early adulthood and childhood are marked by rapid neural growth.
Between our 20s and 80s, we lose a small amount of brain weight.
The ability to think in terms of abstract concepts and symbolic relationships is a decrease in fluid intelligence in the later years.
Increased knowledge of facts and information accompanies the decrease.
Social development involves interacting with others and with the social structures in which we live.
The complexity of social development was captured by the author.
This theory is important for its description of the process as a series of stages marked by the resolution of specific tasks, but also because it was the first theory to assert that development is a life-span process.
The following are included in the stages of psychosocial development.
The first year of life is when this stage occurs.
Babies decide whether the world is friendly or hostile based on whether or not they can trust that their basic needs will be met.
Positive resolutions of this stage result in trust and optimism.
Between the ages of one and three, a child needs to develop a sense of control over their environment and their bodily functions.
mastery of toilet training, walking, and other skills related to control of the self are required for successful resolution of this stage.
The stage that occurs at about three to six years of age corresponds with a child's entry into a broader social world outside the home.
Children at this stage need to learn to assert themselves socially, without overstepping their bounds.
Children from six to twelve years old are in this stage.
They are getting used to receiving feedback for their work now that they are in school.
They need to gain a sense of accomplishment and pride in their work.
A sense of competence is produced by the successful resolution of this stage.
The adolescent searches for identity.
Adolescents begin to develop their own values when they question what type of person they are.
fidelity is the resolution of this stage.
We attempt to form loving, lasting relationships in this stage of early adulthood.
One learns how to love in a mature way after the successful resolution of this stage.
Feelings of isolation or a lack of intimacy may result if this stage is not successfully resolved.
Middle adulthood brings with it the struggle to be productive in both career and home, and to contribute to the next generation with ideas and possibly with children.
Being productive in these ways is called generativity.
This is where we attempt to leave our mark on the world.
Failure to resolve this stage can result in feelings of isolation.
During old age, there is a struggle to come to terms with one's life, which involves accepting both successes and failures.
Failure to resolve this stage can lead to bitterness and despair, whereas the positive outcome of this stage is wisdom.
There are other social development theories.
In the 1950s, Harry and Margaret Harlow showed that rhesus monkey infants need more than just food.
Harlow found that the infants became more attached to soft "mothers" without food than to wire them with food.
The tendency to prefer familiar individuals to others is known as attachment.
The father of attachment theory is John Bowlby.
He pioneered the idea that early experiences in childhood have an influence on development and behavior later in life.
Bowlby believed that a close and loving relationship between a child and a caregiver is critical to the infant's healthy development and provides a model that the growing child will use to build mutually beneficial relationships in his or her life.
A lack of responsiveness and physical support on the part of the parent will hurt the child in the short-term and his or her relationships in the long-term.
Mary Ainsworth studied human infant attachment.
In a strange situation in which a parent leaves a child with a stranger and then returns, Ainsworth recognized four attachment patterns.
The child is generally happy in the presence of the primary care giver and can be consoled quickly after he or she returns.
The child may be prevented in the presence of the primary caretakers, and may pretend to not be upset when they leave.
The child may have a "stormy" relationship with the primary care giver, is distressed when he or she leaves, and has difficulty being consoled after his or her return.
The child is disorganized and has an odd relationship with other adults.
In cases of neglect or abuse, this attachment style is more common.
There are three types of parenting styles identified by Diana Baumrind.
Parents have high expectations for their child to follow the rules.
This style is more likely to use punishment like spanking.
The children of these parents are withdrawn.
A high level of control and low level of warmth is what authoritarian parents will exert.
Parents expect compliance to rules but also explain them and encourage independence.
Parents set limits and give punishments.
The children of these parents have high self-esteem.
Parents will exert high levels of control and warmth.
Parents are warm and non-demanding.
Parents consider themselves friends of the child.
Children of these parents are not good at accepting responsibility, controlling their impulses, or being generous in social relationships.
The high level of warmth and low level of control is what permissive parents will exert.
The stages of death and dying were developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.
She found that people tend to come to terms with terminal illnesses in a number of ways.
The stages of grieving are not always ordered by psychologists.
The most influential theory of moral development was developed by Lawrence Kohlberg.
Each of the levels has two distinct stages.
The level of preconventional morality is for ages seven to ten.
Preconventional morality is a two-stage system.
It is based on avoiding punishment and getting rewards.
The fear of being punished is a reason why rules should not be broken.
individualism and exchange are the focus of the second stage of preconventional morality.
Children work for their own interest at this stage, and while they will strike deals with others to satisfy the other person, their primary interest is a selfish one.
In stage 1 of preconventional morality, children make judgments based on fear, while in stage 2 they evaluate the benefit for themselves.
Level II usually occurs from 10 to 16.
This is the stage of morality.
Society's rules and morals are internalized by conventional morality.
The child knows that it is right to follow the rules.
The child's trying to live up to what others expect of them is the first stage of this level.
The child knows that the rules set by society are important, and they try to live up to them.
The development of conscience is the second stage of conventional morality.
Young teens obey rules and feel moral obligations.
Level III begins at age 16.
This is the highest level of morality.
At this level, societal rules are still important, but an internal set of values may cause occasional conflict with societal values.
The belief in individual rights and social contracts is the first stage of this level.
Life and liberty may be more important than social contracts.
A balance must be maintained between individual interests and societal rules.
Stage 6 is the highest stage of moral development in the model.
Universal principles of justice are involved in this stage.
Universal principles of justice are universal rules of morality, but sometimes do not agree with the rules of society.
The universal principles of justice outweigh societal rules according to an individual at stage 6.
According to Kohlberg, few people reach this level.
The moral development of people who live in non-Western culture and of women has been challenged as being inadequate because of Kohlberg's theory.
Carol Gilligan has come up with a new version of the theory.
Gilligan's theory places the development of caring relationships as central to moral progress, rather than focusing on the awareness and development of the concept of justice.
Psychosexual development is the development of an awareness of one's own sexuality, including the identification of the self with a particular gender.
Although most observable sexual development occurs during adolescence, psychosexual development starts at a much younger age.
By age two or three, children are aware that they are boys or girls.
Sex-related roles are acquired very early from the ages of two to seven.
Children in this age range understand that gender is a fixed, un changeable characteristic.
At this age, children begin to understand that gender is a characteristic of the individual and that items such as clothes or even behavior do not define the sex of the individual.
Children may start to blur the lines between male and female roles in society.
When necessary, androgynous individuals can be assertive and aggressive, but they can also be gentle and nurturing.
Sigmund Freud tried to understand the fixations of his patients.
There is a stage theory in which attention is given to certain parts of the body.
From birth to about two years old, the primary source of pleasure for the infant comes from sucking, as well as using the voice to cry out for caretakers.
People who develop fixations during this stage may become addicted to gum, cigarettes, or alcohol.
During the anal stage, toddlers learn that they are praised when they do well with toilet training, but not when they don't.
From three to six years old, children realize they are boys or girls, and begin to puzzle out what that means.
Although Freud wrote about bisexuality and homosexuality, he focused on heterosexual development.
The opposite-sex parent is seen as an ideal partner choice.
People who develop fixations during this stage may be very picky about their partner choices, only selecting people who are similar to their parent.
There is no one part of the body that is more important to the developing mind than the rest.
Children in this stage are mostly focused on gender identification, which is why many boys associate with other boys and many girls associate with other girls, and the two groups see each other with a mixture of interest and suspicion.
Even though they are heterosexual, people who develop fixations in this stage socialize with their own gender as adults.
If traumas in prior stages have resulted in fixations, the genital region becomes the primary source of sexual pleasure.
Another stage theory was developed by a later psychoanalyst, who focused on social and interpersonal factors.
His theory is referred to as one of psychosocial development.
Although you don't need to know the details of his stages, you should know that he focused on issues of identity.
Freud talked about how teenagers struggle with hormones, but also with identity and with roles.
The teenager no longer has the child identity he or she used to have, but does not yet have the adult identity he or she will have in a few years.
The teen is not a girl but a woman, as popular singers have noted.
The concept of the "mid-life crisis," a moment of identity reformation, is one of the things that Erikson is known for.
Albert Bandura has proposed a new theory about sex roles.
Like violent behavior, sexual roles could be learned through social or vicarious learning.
Young boys see older boys being punished for being feminine.
According to Bandura, this pattern creates a self-perpetuating cycle, with each successive generation providing the model for the following generation.
Research shows that parents reward independence and competition in boys and nurturing and caring behaviors in girls.
Sexual development can be influenced by biological, social, and cognitive factors.
Theories of sexual development are not always in line with what is considered normal in modern society.
Chapter 19 has answers and explanations.
When she is five years old, she believes that all things, from people to animals to plants to objects, are alive, but she has trouble understanding circumstances from other "living" things' points of view.
An infant is consoled by his mother when she returns after she leaves the room.
When the mother is in the room, the infant feels comfortable.
A school-age student is able to recognize that the water she poured from a short wide cup is still the same amount of water in a tall, skinny vase.