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33 -- Part 7: The Global South: Latin America and Africa 1945 to the Present
Many of the initial leaders of one-party states were overthrown by the military.
Military rule in Africa was authoritarian.
Latin American military regimes were committed to modernization and held their countries together.
They achieved a lot by drawing on an educated and motivated elite.
From the mid-1970s to the early 1990s, the economic and social conditions in Africa deteriorated and army leaders and dictators became greedy and dishonest.
Military rulers were coming under increasing pressure to hand over power to democratic forces.
Nigeria's history shows how difficult it is to build a nation after independence.
The relation ship between the central government and the various regions was a key constitutional question after Nigeria achieved independence.
The national government at Lagos shared power with three different state governments in the north, west and east.
Each region had a political party.
The rights of minorities were protected by law, and the parties were expected to cooperate in the national parliament.
After independence, bright Nigeria hopes gradual decline because of growing eth nic rivalries.
The rivalries erupted into a civil war in 1967.
The crisis began in 1964 when military officers from the southeast seized the government and executed its leaders.
Muslim northerners had long distrusted the non-Muslim Ibos, so the young officers were popular at first.
Thousands of Ibos were massacred when the Ibo-led military council proclaimed a centralized dictator ship.
The independence of the state of Biafra was proclaimed in 1967.
The war lasted three years.
The Ibos believed that political independence was their only refuge from genocide.
They were heavily outnumbered.
As Biafra became a sym bol of monumental human tragedy, mil ion may have been starving to death.
Nigeria's military rulers focused on building a nation in the 70s after preserving the state in the 1960s.
The country was divided into nineteen small units to deal with local and cultural matters.
Iboland was rebuilt with federal oil revenues after the Ibos were pardoned.
The combination of Hausa-Fulani Mus lim army officers ruled until 1998, when the brutal military dictator General Sani Abacha suddenly died, giving Nigeria renewed hope for unity and democracy.
The first civilian transfer of power in Nigeria's history took place in April 2003 and the first civilian-to-civilian transfer took place in 2007.
The country's democracy is not firmly entrenched and corruption and mismanagement remain widespread.
Nigeria is the 11th largest oil producer in the world.
Nigerian politicians have neglected the huge oil revenues from the first oil boom.
When oil prices were high in the 1970s, Nigeria's leaders ran up huge debts, but were unable to repay them when oil prices fell in the 1980s.
Nigeria's education and health care systems have continued to decline since the 1970s, despite the fact that there should be plentiful income from oil revenues to fund social programs.
Nigeria needs to become economically stable if it is to overcome poverty.
Nigeria's leaders need to calm the religious tension that continues to divide the country.
There have been riots between Muslims and non-Muslims in the northern Nigerian states.
The numerical strength and determination of the white settlers made Southern Africa under white minority rule.
Between 1940 and the mid-1960s, white settlers used forced native labor on large coffee farms and the white population increased from 70,000 to 380,000.
As exploitation grew, so did resentment.
Nationalist liberation movements waged relentless warfare.
African liberation forces took control of the two countries in 1975.
A coalition of nationalist groups won in Zimbabwe.
The battle in South Africa was going to get worse.
The outcome of the South African War is believed to have caused the racial conflict in the Republic of South Africa.
After the British conquered the Afrikaner repub lics, they agreed to grant all of South Africa self-government.
Canada and Australia are self-governing British dominions.
Moderate Afrikaners and En glish Afrikaners ruled together and could decide which nonwhites should vote.
A 1913 South black ownership of land to native reserves limited black own try.
Poor and overpopulated, the rural native reserves were a pool of cheap land for white farms, mines, and factories.
The foundation of white supremacy in South Africa was formed by the native reserves system.
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