Edited Invalid date
21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives -- Part 27
The polar heads of phosphoglycerides can be exposed to the solution and protected from the hydrocarbons.
A part of the cell is the bilayer.
Steroids are found in plants and animals.
Steroids include hormones, emulsifiers, and components of membranes.
The carbon atoms are numbered beginning with the A ring and ending with the two "angular" groups, and the four rings are designated A, B, C, and D.
Section 3-16B shows that fused ring systems can have either trans or cis stereochemistry at each ring junction.
All three of the ring junctions are trans in the androstane structure shown above.
The trans isomer is quite rigid and flat if you make a model of it.
The cis isomer has two rings that are at a sharp angle to each other.
The three ring junctions are trans in androstane.
The all-trans structure of most steroids results in a stiff, nearly flat molecule.
The A ring has to fold down below the rest of the ring system in some steroids.
Natural steroids are used to trans in the B-C and C-D ring junctions.
The second ring and junction hydrogens arecis.
Steroids may have a cis or trans A-B ring junction.
The other ring junctions are not always trans.
The androstane ring system is the basis of andsterone.
There is a side chain at C17 and a double bond between C5 and C6.
Sex hormones have been studied extensively.
The C19 group must be lost.
In mammals, testosterone is converted to estradiol in the female's ovaries, where the aromatic A ring can be found.
When steroid hormones were first isolated, people thought they couldn't compete with natural steroids.
Steroids are hundreds or thousands of times more potent than natural steroids.
ethynyl estradiol is a synthetic female hormone that is more potent than estra.
Ethynyl estradiol is used in oral contraceptives.
The adrenocortical hormones have either a carbonyl group or a hydroxy group at C11 of the steroid skeleton.
Cortisol is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin, joints, and lungs.
Fluocinolone acetonide and beclomethasone are more potent for treating asthma than Cortisol is.
Determine whether each red group is an axis or an equator by drawing each molecule in a stable chair.
They have a carbonyl group on C9.
There are hormones for oral contraceptives.
The market for barbasco collapsed.
The cis double bond between prostaglandins and steroids was found in the 1970s.
The number of double bonds is also given in the name, as shown here for in soybeans, a cheaper and more prostaglandins.
Arachidonic acid is a 20-carbon fatty acid with four cis double bonds.
Lowering the inflammatory response is one of the functions of aspirin.
Prostaglandins are difficult to remove from animal tissues because of their small concentrations.
The process of making them is long and difficult, and only a small amount of product is obtained.
This coral prostaglandin is a starting material for efficient prostaglandins.
This compound can be used to grow plants.
They have pleasant tastes and are widely used as flavor to medically useful prostaglandins.
Hundreds of essential oils were used as perfumes, flavorings, and medicines.
Prostaglandins oil of turpentine has a C:H ratio of 5:8 and many other essential oils have similar ratios.
Otto Wallach, a German chemist, determined the structures of several terpenes in the 19th century.
The isoprene unit is used for the treatment of wounds.
The essential oils of fragrant plants are the source of many terpenes.
The isoprene molecule and isoprene unit have heads and tails.
Myrcene can be divided into two isoprene units, with the head of one unit bonding to the tail of the other.
There are three isoprene units in b@selinene.
The head-to-tail arrangement is more difficult to see because of the additional bonds used to form the rings.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms