ChAPTER 19 -- Part 3: The Last Great Nomadic Challenges:
The first assault on the islamic world took place after the Mongols established a foothold in north China.
After Muhammad Shah provoked him, Chinggis Khan led his armies in the conquest of the Khwarazm empire further west.
The Mongols used their favorite tactic in these encounters.
The enemy's main force was attacked by the cavalry.
The opposing forces were drawn out of forma tion in the hope of killing the fleeing Mongols.
The Postclassical Period, 600-1450: New Faith and New Commerce is a european assessment of the virtues and vices of the Mongols as we have seen, but instead helps him and supports him as a nomadic people.
The Tartars are prouder than other men and despise their enemies.
Marco, whether noble or base born, was one of the most famous observers.
The Tartars became quite angry at Polo, who visited the vast Mongol domain at the height of the with other men, and lied to all outsiders.
Many tried to assess the truth.
The strengths and weaknesses of these people are very mild at first, but in the end they sting like scorpions.
If the Tartars can get around the world, they will have an impact on the history of many of the known and dangerous.
Fran cunning was one of the most insightful observers.
The men are filthy with regard to their clothing, Innocent IV sent Piano Carpini as an envoy to the "Great Khan" and other things.
Drunkenness is honorable to protest the assaults on Christian Tartars.
They are demanding of Europe.
The pope's protest didn't change anything for the Mongol deci favors, who think nothing of killing foreigners.
Their evil sion to strike elsewhere in the years to come.
Piano Carpini's habits are so many that they can't be set down.
There are no achievements of Chinggis Khan or the stunning Mongol wars of wars, quarrels, injuries or murders that he promotes, and he rarely argues to the point of insult.
He might be dismissed as heat when riding horses because they tolerate cold.
No man had spread themselves over the countryside until the main force of heavy cavalry attacked them in a pincer formation.
The great cities of adversary powers fell to the new siege weapons and tactics of the Mongols.
Muham mad Shah died on a desolate island in the Caspian Sea after he retreated across his empire.
Tens of thousands of Turkic horsemen could be brought into his armies because of the victories of Chinggis Khan.
The Mongols ruled an empire that stretched from eastern Persia to the North China Sea by the year of his death.
Despite their aggressiveness as warriors and the destruction they could unleash on those who resisted their demands, the Mongols were remarkably astute and rulers.
The standard was set by Chinggis Khan.
The ignorant savage and cultureless vandal depicted in the accounts of civilized writers were not Chinggis Khan.
He was interested in the arts and learning of the conquered peoples, even though he refused to live in their cities.
At Karakorum, Chinggis Khan consulted with Confucian scholars about how to rule China, with Muslim engineers about how to build siege weapons and improve trade with the lands farther west, and with Daoist holy men, whom he hoped could give him an elixir that would make him immortality.
Muslim and Chinese bureaucrats collaborated to create an administrative framework.
recordkeeping and the standardization of laws can be done with a script.
Policemen were specially designated to enforce the legal code.
The code was meant to end the divisions and fights that had plagued the nomadic peoples.
Penalties were established for stealing horses and for rustling livestock, which were allotted to specific tribes.
The peace of Asia was brought about by the conquests of the Mongols.
handicraft production and scholarship flourished in the towns of the empire.
Trade routes made for prosperous merchants and cosmopolitan cities.
Mongol expansion, which sedentary chroniclers condemned as a "barbarian" orgy of violence and destruction, became a major force for economic and social development and the enhancement of civilized life.
The movement of merchants and commercial goods led to the spread of disease.
The intercontinental wave of bubonic plague that came to be known as the Black Death was carried from China to the Black Sea and from there to the Mediterranean by ships, according to some historians.
In 1226, after his wars to the west won, Chinggis Khan turned east with an army of 180,000 warriors to complete the conquest of China that he regretted having left unfinished more than a decade earlier.
After defeating the Tangut army in a battle on the frozen waters of the Yellow River, the Mongol armies overran the kingdom of Xi Xia, plundering, burning, and killing Tangut survivors.
After lecturing his sons on the dangers of quarreling among themselves for the spoils of the empire, the khagan died in August.
The body of the man was taken back to his home country of Mongolia for burial.
Every human and animal was killed in the funeral procession.
The common property of the ruling family of the Mongols was the towns and cultivated areas that were responsible for invasion parts of Persia.