King Charles I was put to death during the English civil war.
The image shows how the audience was repelled by this act and how they were attracted to it.
The Royal Oak of Britain is England's longstanding symbol of authority and tradition.
The oak teeters, threatening to fall and take with it the traditional rule of law.
The soldiers help the woodsmen destroy the tree.
Oliver Cromwell is in charge of the destruction.
He is oblivious to how close he is to hell.
The disorder that had torn at England since the civil war began can be seen in the cartoon.
Parliament seemed unable to unite the chopping down of the oak, symbol of Britain, and bringing down with it various constituents that demanded action after religion, the Magna Carta, and other texts hanging from the tree, as shown in this cartoon.
The general lost his patience when the House of Commons considered a proposal to dismantle the expense of their neighbors even if it meant taking well's large army.
They lost their property and their lives.
Ireland established a military republic because they realized their inability to dictatorship remained only as an ideal.
They created a social contract because they faced the same problems that Parliament faced, so they built a ruler above them.
Cromwell set out to make England the to a ruler who agreed to rule over them model of a Protestant land, banning horse races and cocks.
With this explanation, Hobbes reconciled the erant of Anglicans as they had been of Puritans, and Protestant views of sovereignty, in which the peo he alienated most of the population with his intrusive ple held the right to rule with absolute monarchy, policies.
There was a brief experiment with a rule by where Parliament had failed and a military dictatorship had sole sovereignty.
The ruler is holding a sword and scepter of power.
Charles's trial and execution did not resolve the issue of who had the ultimate who he would not exist.
In 1651, the English philosopher gated power and Thomas Hobbes wrote a political treatise.
Hobbes thought that absolute monarchy would be a bad thing.
He claimed that peace is guaranteed in the land.
Final PDF to printer.
The people of England welcomed their new king with great enthusiasm.
Charles II came home to a restored monarchy that had all the luxuries that his father had enjoyed.
Charles's coronation was the subject of several pages of Samuel's diary.
The years of Puritan temperance seemed to melt away in a haze of drunkenness asPepys drank with wild abandon during the celebration.
Not everyone got caught up in the celebration.
The Restoration was seen in a different light by Cromwell supporters.
John Bunyan, who had fought with Cromwell, was imprisoned in 1660 for preaching against the Restoration.
He was sentenced to twelve years because he refused to stop preaching.
The political struggles of England were not solved by the Restoration according to Bunyan's works.
While offending Charles II, Cromwell failed to develop an institution that could have helped James I and Charles I, but he had to maintain the Puritan republic.
When he died in 1658, he named his son Richard as his successor.
The king was bound by law to call Par the young man because he couldn't lead with the same fervor and energy that his father had shown.
The power of the royal family was severely limited under the pres.
Charles needed money and the right to govern was returned to the people.
The chaos that followed Charles's Dutch in 1665.
The English New York was given to the Dutch in exchange for Dutch archy.
Charles II was the son of the control of Surinam in South America.
England prevented ships from sailing from international dealings to Holland to escort the king home from disasters at home.
Both his politics and his religion suited the St. Paul's Cathedral.
The fi re had ended.
The city was rebuilt by Charles after William gathered an army and Sir Christopher Wren was hired to redesign the main.
The London skyline is still marked by the new St. Paul's slowly and peacefully toward LonCathedral.
James remembered Charles I's fate and decided to come to the fore again.
To circumvent Parliament, Louis XIV received his Catholic counterpart with kindness.
They thought of James II as a sign of Charles's concessions to Catholics, a Catholic hero, and Irish leaders conspiring with James the Test Act in 1673.
The law required an oath to help him regain his throne while the French king's loyalties to the Catholics helped fund this enterprise.
William ing public offi ces, but legislation could not affect the led army into Ireland, or alleviate Parliament's fears of what he saw as Catholic treason.
Abandoning both religions.
James lived out his Roman Catholicism on his deathbed after converting to Ireland.
The new king was not able to avoid confrontation with Ireland and offered new opportunities for Protestant Parliament.
James demanded that English landlords take possession of Irish in order to support Catholic lands.
William's victory was cheered in Parliament's law because of the Irish anger toward the English.
James was feared to come to England.
Parliament tried to institute absolute rule.
They may have been tasked with establishing the legitimacy of his kingship.
The members of Parliament decided that James should wait and see.
James's wife stituted an abdication of the throne in 1688.
According to Hobbes, the people surrendered leading members of Parliament in order to get a Catholic heir to the throne of England.
In 1689, parliamentary leaders passed a Bill of Rights that stated that kings were subject to the laws of William of Orange of the Netherlands.
William agreed to preserve freedom of speech, election, and the rule of law in the Bill of Rights.
Charles did not execute tives with the king.
Commonwealth in England has a way to get its authority.
Others were unsure about the legality of William and Mary becoming monarchs.
The servant who lived through thePepys was an active participant in the English Civil War.
If not the era, he would have been forgotten.
While at Cambridge, he kept a diary that contained information about the execution of Charles I and a chronicle of the age.
The fi th of eleven new monarchs returned to England on February 23, 1633 after S amuel was born in London.
He and two of his contacts made sure his siblings survived childhood.
The position was suited to his talents.
The year after, the ily provided him with something.
An undergradu and his wife live with his uncle.
He stopped eating at the college because his eyesight was not good enough to read Oliver's diary.
He received his bachelor's degree in cal life after working in the naval offi ce.
Continue to read in the diary.
He found a job after graduating and was elected to the House ers with a picture of himself as secretary to a distant relative.
He received century England.
The parlia 1 was lost by him.
The Protestant refugee's life is revealed byPepys's life.
He was arrested on suspicion of political events such as the growing mismanagement of the household after complaining about the mentary election in 1689.
He supported James II.
Locke believed that power originally rested with the people of England and that the Revolution of 1688 was to proclaim the legitimacy of the citizens to keep William.
Locke articulated order.
The city of Maastricht is making authority again.
The Protestant Stuart dynasty evaporated due to the death of Queen Anne.
The Hanoverian dynasty was introduced to England by 100 km.
The location of the Netherlands in Europe is shown on the map.
The scale of the English nobility's claims over the map and how small the United Provinces were can be seen in the 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846
The location of these states would prove stable.
The United Provinces, also known as the Dutch people, were given power in the 17th century by the political structure developed in the Netherlands.
The only major European power to another form of constitutionalism that structured the maintain a republican form of government through government around consent of the propertied was instituted Republic.
When the Low Countries split in 1609, the southern part of the country was erned by an assembly and made Catholic regions subject to the strictures of delegates from cities and rural areas.
The north implemented provincial assembly decisions.
The executive power at the local level was vested in In the United Provinces, which became largely Cal governors of each province.
After the wars with Catholic Spain, executive power was given to the state that was able to resist any attempts by the Council of State.
After the revolt from Spain, States used to resolve any important State against Princes without his advice.
This small region was a tremen for local issues but had some drawbacks for European and colonial power.
Amsterdam became more involved in foreign policy.
In the 1650s, Holland, the largest province in Europe, took an informal lead in bringing huge quantities of herring from the North Sea, directing the state's foreign policy.
They designed ships that served as a unifying point.
William of Orange was able to sail with fewer crew members because he built ships quickly and cheaply.
The most modern governmental structure of the Dutch Republic was used in the document.
The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty for masts and the manufacture of interchangeable Years' War formally recognized the parts.
The Republic of the United Provinces was reported by contemporary witnesses.
The golden age of major slave traders in the New World happened in the 17th century and the Dutch grew rich from it.
PDF to printer for economic life of the republic The United Provinces attracted intellectuals such as Rene Descartes from France and John Locke from England and stimulated the spread of ideas through the press.
Cromwell's government was attacked by an anonymous pamphlet in the Netherlands in 1649.
The small country of the Netherlands was burdened by the refugees streaming into it.
Dutch shipbuilding was the wonder of Europe, and Samuel Pepys was depicted in many images, including this anonymous engraving.
He said that people saw wealth and opportunities there.
Special entertainment taxes were put in place to raise money for the needy.
Europeans were surprised as well.
They commissioned paintings that were based on the prosperity and enterprise of the Dutch.
The Dutch had other elements that contributed to Vermeer.
The Dutch aristocracy was not as rich as other countries.
The aristocracy had more in common with the merchants of their land than they did with the nobility at the court of Versailles.
In the United Provinces, the Protestant faith cultivated an ideology of moderation rather than the excess that marked the nobility of other states.
The nobility of the United Provinces were interested in increasing their power as much as the other countries.
They weren't able to exert much centralized control over the prosperous Protestant residents of Europe.
The Dutch had an unusual degree of religious toleration.
The refugees enriched the cultural and fell on hard times.
In the free Dutch environment, the final PDF was printed.
The Dutch artist Rembrandt van and the cloth guild provided the coal he needed to heat his house for the winter.
The Dutch began to lose their preeminence in the beginning of the 18th century.
Two people were chosen to manage the guild.
The artist captures the proud intensity with which the political development they work on over a book on the table contributed.
Both nations offered this painting to the cloth guild in thanks for it being painted by Rembrandt, who had fallen on hard strong monarchs proclaiming a divine right to rule.
The seventeenth century was a time of both comfort and struggle for members of Western societies.
The elites' continued dominance gave them comfort.
From the beginning to the end of the century, they held most of the resources.
The real threats came from competing colleagues and the monarch above.
The power of monarchs to become "absolute" in both theory and practice sparked intense struggles within states.
France, Prussia, and Russia had strong monarchs who were stable.
The period of struggle for the vast majority who toiled in the fi elds was without much comfort.
In western Europe, demands for expanding central governments for taxes and conscripts only made things worse.
Landowning nobles in eastern Europe added to the problems by burdening peasants with serfdom.
Some people in western Europe may be able to improve their lot because of the loosened structure of this society.
The structure only tightened in eastern Europe.
War, revolt, and even revolution shook societies in Europe without breaking the traditional hierarchies.
Some traditions began to fall apart.
The intellectual foundations of Western society would soon be changed by important changes in science and thought.
Determine how monarchs tried to increase their power.
Why did monarchs win some colonies?
How cal theories developed to justify the political structure of the Netherlands.
What lessons can be learned from this chapter for today's political people?
The center stage of this frontispiece is a globe and ship, which represent the West's exploration of the world.
There are drawings of instruments that were used in the new age of exploration and science.