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17.4 Applying Genomics
This discipline is interested in abnormal gene function.
Knowing about the entire genome will allow researchers to find diseases early.
It will allow for more informed decisions about lifestyle, medication, and having children.
Someday, whole-genome sequencing may be used to screen every newborn to detect genetic abnormality.
Higher crop and fuel production, as well as lower consumer cost, can be achieved through the development of novel enzymes that convert biomass to biofuel.
Better methods of control over the microbes that are used in the production of fuels should be allowed by this knowledge.
Monitoring methods could be improved to measure the impact of pollutants on the environment.
Medical science and agriculture could benefit from the development of pharmaceuticals and pesticides.
Humans have a responsibility to use the knowledge they get from whole-genome sequencing in the right way.
It could be easy to misuse the power of knowledge, leading to discrimination based on a person's genetics, human genetic engineering, and other ethical concerns.
Legal issues regarding health and privacy could be caused by this information.
By the end of this section, you will be able to explain pharmacogenomics and define polygenic.
Many fields, such as metagenomics, are using genomics.
Understanding and finding cures for diseases is the most common application of genomics.
Predicting disease risk involves screening currently healthy individuals.
Intervention with lifestyle changes and drugs can be recommended by health care professionals.
This approach is most applicable when the problem is a single gene defect.
5 percent of diseases in developed countries are caused by such defects.
The genome analysis of a healthy individual was published in April 2010 by scientists at the university.
His propensity to acquire diseases was predicted by the analysis.
The medical team analyzed Quake's percentage of risk for 55 different medical conditions.
He was found to be at risk for a sudden heart attack.
The results predicted that Quake had a 23 percent risk of developing cancer and a 1.4 percent risk of Alzheimer's.
The scientists used databases to analyze the data.
Even thoughgenomics is becoming more affordable and analytical tools are more reliable, researchers still need to address ethical issues surroundinggenomic analysis at a population level.
PCA3 is overexpressed in cancer cells.
A high PCA3 concentration in urine is indicative of cancer.
The PCA3 test is a better indicator of cancer than the PSA test, which measures the level of PSA in the blood.
The PSA test should not be used to screen healthy men for cancer, according to the United States Preventative Services Task Force.
There is no evidence that screening reduces the risk of death from the disease.
While the cancer treatment can have severe side effects, the prostrate cancer develops very slowly and does not cause problems.
The PCA3 test is more accurate, but it may still result in men who wouldn't have been harmed by the cancer if they had been screened.
We can use experimental animals or live cells in the laboratory to study the effects of drugs.
We can use changes in gene expression as an indicator of the potential for toxic effects by studying the drug's presence in the body.
When genes are disturbed, they could lead to cancer.
New genes involved in drug toxicity can be found through genome-wide studies.
Medical professionals can use personal genome sequence information to prescribe the most effective and least toxic drugs for their patients.
Medical professionals can test the genes further before they show signs of disease.
This involves culturing a single cell type.
The genes of the organisms adapt very quickly to the new laboratory environment because they can go through several generations in a matter of hours.
The majority ofbacteria resist culturing in isolation.
The majority of the organisms live in communities or inbiofilms.
Pure culture is not always the best way to study organisms.
Metagenomics can be used to identify new species more quickly and to analyze the effect of pollutants on the environment.
Metagenomics is the isolating of DNA from multiple species.
Knowledge of the genetics of the organisms is being used to find better ways to use them.
Coal, oil, wood, and other plant products are the primary sources of fuel today.
Although plants are renewable resources, there is still a need to find more alternative renewable sources of energy to meet our population's energy demands.
One of the largest resources for genes that create new enzymes and produce new organic compounds is the microbial world.
Microorganisms are used to create products that are used in research, antibiotics, and other antimicrobial mechanisms.
Diagnostic tools, improved vaccines, new disease treatments, and advanced environmental Cleanup techniques are some of the things that are being helped by microbial genomics.
Mitochondria have their own genes.
Scientists use Mitochondrial DNA to study evolutionary relationships.
The fertilization process of multicellular organisms involves the transfer of the mitochondrial DNA from the mother to the child.
Scientists often use genetic testing to trace genealogy.
Information and clues from DNA samples at crime scenes have been used as evidence in court.
Genomic analysis is useful in this field.
The first publication showing the use of genomics in forensics came out in 2001.
The FBI and academic research institutions collaborated to solve the cases of anthrax that were communicated via the US Postal Service.
The culprit used a specific strain of anthrax.
The trials and failures involved in scientific research can be reduced with the use of genotypic technology.
Crop breeding can be improved by linking traits to genes.
Scientists use genomic data to identify desirable traits and transfer them to another organisms.
Researchers are trying to understand how genetics can improve agricultural production.
Scientists could use desirable traits to create a useful product or enhance an existing product, such as making a crop more tolerant of the dry season.
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