Some of the French Alliance were hanged for aiding the British cause.
Families were forced to choose between the Loyalist or the Patriotic side during the War in the South.
The control of most local governments gave the patriots an advantage.
The Continental army was a ragtag force that held its own on the battlefield.
Military service creates political commitment and vice versa.
People's political identities changed as they did so.
Loyalists had lived in a world dominated by family, kinship and locality.
The bonds of citizenship connected them to The Articles of Confederation.
The difference is immense from subjects to citizens.
France would be thrown into turmoil by republicanism and inspire revolutionaries in The Rise of a Nationalist Faction.
Philadelphia was bound to be at the end of the American Revolution.
The process of replacing an Atlantic colonial system that spanned the Americas with an American system of new nations began after the revolution of 1776.
George Washington was a hero on both sides of the Atlantic.
The Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Alliance with France are shown in this engraving, which was printed in Paris in 1780.
William Lee, Washington's valet and constant companion during the Revolution, saddles his horse in the background of this vaguely Orientalized scene.
A full-scale military assault was launched by the British.
Europeans gave the rebels a chance.
20 percent of them were slaves.
There are many areas of strength.
The new Kentucky settlements were attacked by the Shawnees and their allies with the help of the Loyalist Strongholds British.
The Americans used their control of the local military to be weak.
They didn't have a strong central govern governments to give money and supplies to the rebels.
Loyalists are a reliable source of tax revenue.
Their strongholds were limited to the Nova Continental army, which consisted of 18,000 poorly trained and untrained people in the South.
Most Native American people are inexperienced recruits.
His plan was to take control of the Hudson River so that the radicals in New England wouldn't be able to move to the south.
In July 1776, the British army pushed the rebels out of Philadelphia and across New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.
The winter came just in New York City.
Washington crossed the Delaware military objective in the Island on Christmas night 1776, after Britain forced their retreat to Manhattan.
Washington's troops were trapped in New Jersey where he forced the surrender.
Outgunned by 1,000 German soldiers.
The Continental army won a small victory in January 1777 after being outmaneuvered, and eventually crossing the Hudson River to New Jersey.
Washington's forces were driven across New Jersey into Pennsylvania by the British army.
The winter headquarters of the Americans were set up in Morristown.
British forces stayed on the offensive.
Philadelphia was captured by General Howe in early October.
General Burgoyne and Colonel St. Leger invaded Canada at the same time.
The military turning point of the war took place in October of 1777, when American troops commanded by General Horatio Gates defeated Burgoyne with the help of thousands of New England militiamen.
The Congress wants to give up the struggle.
Washington told Congress that the war should be defensive to avoid a major defeat.
His strategy was to draw Thanks from General Howe, the rebellion against the British away from the seacoast extended their lines.
The Coercive Acts of 1774 supply were opposed by Howe.
Congress promised Washington that a regular force wouldn't try to destroy the American army, but instead tried to get 75,000 men to join, and the Continental army never reached to show its weakness.
Black smoke from burning buildings obscures the sun as the muzzle of an American cannon illuminates the battlefield.
Washington, on horseback to the right of the flag, confronted three redcoats at Princeton after Cornwallis surprised him with a surprise attack and victory at nearby Trenton.
The Americans had an advantage in numbers and put the British to flight, but only after withstanding the bayonet charge depicted in the right-center of William Mercer's painting.
The women families and farms would only serve in local militias if they were taken away from their officers.
The Continental soldiers were recruited in the patriots because they believed a standing army was a threat to the Continental Maryland.
They preferred militias to Congress to create an American fighting force.
Most enlisted for a $20 cash bonus and a promise of 100 acres of land.
After Howe failed to achieve an overwhelming victory, force was nearly impossible.
In the face of British attacks, inexperienced soldiers Lord North and his colonial secretary, Lord George panicked, and thousands Germain launched another major military campaign deserted, unwilling to submit to the discipline of mili in 1777.
New England was the primary tary life.
The contempt goal was resented by the soldiers who stayed.
Germain planned an attack on Albany, New York.
Burgoyne would lead a large contingent of regulars south from Quebec, Colonel Barry St. Leger would attack from the west, and General Howe would lead troops north from New York City.
Howe decided to attack Philadelphia, the home of the Continental Congress, in order to end the rebellion.
Howe loaded his troops onto boats and sailed up the bay to attack Philadelphia from the south.
The plan worked.
In late September, Howe's troops marched triumphantly into Philadelphia after they outflanked the American positions in Delaware.
The Continental Congress fled to the countryside after the rebels' capital was captured.
Burgoyne was used to high living and was used to fighting in the war.
In 1778 and 1779, he fought in Europe in a leisurely fashion and believed that the rebels would be easily defeated in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania and the Cherry Valley in his large army.
In this 1797 portrait, artist Charles Willson Peale pitched tents early and portrayed Brant with European features.
In August, the British raided The Perils of War Vermont, but were beaten back by American militiamen.
St. Leger and the Iroquois were thrown into retreat by the patriot forces in the Mohawk Valley.
Making problems during the war.
A British naval blockade cut off supplies of European manufactures and disrupted the City, the British commander in New York recalled 4,000 troops he had sent toward Albany New England fishing industry, and the British ordered them to Philadelphia to bolster Howe's occupation of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.
While Burgoyne was waiting for help, he reduced trade.
The population of York City fell from 21,000 to 10,000 as Gates, along with unemployed sands of Patriot militiamen from Massachusetts, moved to the countryside.
The British blockade cut tobacco exports in the British because of a series of skirmishes in Burgoyne.
The English armies reported that the planters grew grain to sell to the con around the army.
All across the land, farmers and arti sergeant forced Burgoyne to adapt to a war economy.
The victory at Saratoga was the turning point for military supplies because of the scarcity of goods.
The artisans refused to sell their goods.
tens of thousands of civilians were at risk from the fighting.
The British and American armies forced the families of the Loyalists to flee their homes as they marched across New Jersey.
Soldiers and partisans raped women and girls.
An army, even a friendly one, are a terrible thing to do.
Many farm communities were divided by the war.
The property of those who refused to pay was seized.
A Loyalist preacher lamented that every body was submitted to the Mob.
The number of people who refused to join either side was large in parts of Maryland.
The weakness of the governments was exposed by defiance.
Most states were afraid to raise taxes, so officials issued bonds to secure gold or silver from provide 1,000 coats and 1,600 shirts, and soldiers wealthy individuals.
Indi echoed their pleas when the funds ran out.
Captain Edward Rogers told his wife that "the making worth, and most people refused," after he lost all his shirts in the Battle of Long Island.
Women responded with value.
They promised "upwards of rejected the state's currency" in North Carolina.
The finances of the Continental Congress col women assumed the burdens of farmwork despite the efforts of Philadelphia men who were away at war.
Sarah said they had sow'd oats as you wanted.
The Congress didn't have the authority to allow her to write to her husband.
The states paid late or not at all.
Some women Morris secured loans from France and Holland and expected more legal rights in the new republican, so they sold Continental loan certificates to thirteen societies.
Goods remained scarce and expensive.
The paper money was issued by Congress and called for govern cies and quickly fell in value.
A family needed $7 ment regulation.
When the New England states imposed price ceilings on goods worth $1 in gold or $1 in silver, many farmers and silver miners were left out.
The new state governments printed their own currency.
Virginia used the Spanish gold dollar as its basic unit of currency, but the equivalent in English pounds is also shown.
$1,200 was equal to PS360 -- a ratio of 3.3 to 1.
By 1781, Virginia had printed so much paper money that the value of its currency had fallen.
The same amount of goods could be bought with the same amount of Virginia currency.
He instituted a strict drill system and social upheaval after 100 to 1 in 1780 and 146 to 1 in 1781.
A group of women in Boston encouraged officers to be more professional.
In the spring of 1778, women from Valley Forge told the com that there was a better-disciplined force in New York.
The leaders of the rebellion feared that the rebellion would collapse.
During the winter of 1777, fears reached their peak.
The War of Independence was won by astute diplomacy and Howe's army lived in Philadelphia.
The surgeon said that the alliance gave grow sickly.
The Americans desperately needed money, supplies, food, hard lodging, cold weather, fatigue, and eventually, troops.
Britain was confronted with clothes.
Farmers refused to help.
Some were unwilling to support either side.
Others looked out for The French Alliance, but refused to partner with Continental France and America.
France had currency.
Washington said that the United States was Protes public virtue because of a lack of public spirit.
Between 1689 and 1763, more than 200 officers had resigned, 1,000 hungry soldiers had been enemies, and another 3,000 had died from malnu.
The French and their many American lives had two years of fighting after the winter of 1755 at Valley Forge.
British settlements had been raided by Indian allies.
Baron von Steuben, the French foreign minister, raised the readiness of the American army.
Von Steuben was a former Prussian who was determined to avenge the loss of Canada during the military officer and persuaded republican-minded foreign aristocrats who joined the King Louis XVI to provide the colonies with American cause.
He was appointed as inspector general of the secret loan and gunpowder.
The news of the rebel victory at Saratoga reached Paris in which it joined the war against Britain.
The British Treaty of Alliance of February 1778 stated that neither partner would sign a West Indies and capture the rich tobacco- and rice separate peace without the liberty, sovereignty, and growing colonies of Virginia.
The ministry planned to use the Scott Continental Congress to recognize the conquests of the French in the Carolinas and the West Indies.
To hold them, "France and America."
"There has been a great change in this state since the patriots admitted to the Continental Congress, they the news from France," a soldier reported.
The Continental Congress the Revolution was a "triangular war" in which African addressed the demands of the officer corps because of the large number of slaves in the South.
The problem of Americans was a strategic one, as most of them were gentlemen who were prepared and willing to risk their lives for the benefit of the raised volunteers.
Britain recruited slaves.
Dunmore's controversial proclama the officers for "scrambling for rank and pay like apes tion in November 1775 recruiting slaves to his for nuts" was condemned by John Adams.
The Congress agreed to protect the deserted rebel master, but only for seven years.
The war became unpopular and 30,000 African Americans went to Britain.
George III wanted to crush the take refuge behind British lines.
If America won independence, Lord North warned that blacks would be barred from the Continental army.
Ireland relented in 1777.
To stop the American strategy.
To seek a negotiated settlement in Georgia.
The troops were commanded by a Colonel.
The Tea and Prohibitory was repealed in December of 1778 after North Archibald Campbell captured the town.
Campbell moved inland and captured Augusta colonies because he wanted to give up his power to tax the plies.
Early in the 17th century, they allied with France.
Clinton's forces and local committed to independence rejected North's overture by the end of the year.
Loyalists had 10,000 troops ready to attack South Carolina.
British forces won the war in the South in 1780.
The garrison of 5,000 war did not come to an end after Clinton forced the surrender of The French alliance.
In June 1778, France entered the conflict.
Lord Charles Cornwallis wanted to seize all of Britain's sugar islands.
The American settlements were raided by Ft. McIntosh.
General Horatio commanded the American force in Rhode Island.
The British forces are holding New York City.
Hundreds of African Americans fled to freedom after Washington dispatched General Nathanael Greene to behind British lines.
The strategy was to get back the Carolinas.
The tide of battle turned.
France finally dispatched troops to the under strong leaders and unleashed them on less American mainland.
In October 1780, Lafayette persuaded King Louis XIV to defeat the Loyalists at King's Mountain and send General Comte de Rochambeau and 5,500 men to South Carolina.
The Revolution offered no clear path to freedom for African American slaves.
Britain promised to liberate slaves who fought against their masters and the Black Some slaves agreed to fight for it.
While some were freed, others were forced into service in the army, or even sold into slavery in the West Indies.
After initially refusing the service of black soldiers, the patriots enlisted them in small numbers, but always upheld the property rights of their masters.
To defeat the unreasonable purposes.
The companies of Negroes are encouraged to a general insurrection.
We think it shoots at the enemy.
America escaped punishment due to their crimes.
When I enlisted into the American army, I was forced to serve for about ten months with some of the slaves who were delivered to their masters.
I was taken home by this dreadful ter.
"Servants obey especially when we saw our old masters coming from your master," I might have done otherwise, if I had been taught to read rumour filled with inexpressible anguish and terror.
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation, Learn NC, North Carolina Digital History embittered life to us because many of the slaves had very cruel masters.
Each of us received a certificate from the commanding officer at New-York, which dispelled our fears and made us happy.
Grant is re-enslaved.
His application was denied.
In the summer and winter, compare the runaway ad for Titus with the teamster and waiter.
I suffered from fear that I should be and what you've learned in class, so I wrote a short essay that was sent aboard a ship of war.
When I saw how the presence of slaves created a "triangular war" in the South, I thought about the choices that individual slaves had to make during the Revolution.
Britain's military strategy began well.
The British took control of Georgia and defeated Charleston in 1780.
The British troops and Loyalist units battled in the interior of the Carolinas over the course of eighteen months.
British general Charles Cornwallis carried the battle into Virginia in order to break the stalemate.
A FrancoAmerican army led by Washington and Lafayette, with the help of the French fleet, surrounded Cornwallis's forces on the Yorktown Peninsula and forced their surrender.
The British general conceded to the American guerrillas commanded by the "Swamp Fox" and sought a decisive victory in fierce battles.
Morgan led an American force to a bloody victory at the Cowpens, South Carolina, but many of the militiamen refused to take up arms.
The war in South Carolina was characterized by ferocious guerrilla fighting.
Marion led an irregular militia brigade in several successful attacks.
The Swamp Fox was called by the patriots.
The Pedee River was painted by William T. Ranney and his men crossed it in flatboats.
A black oarsman was included.
Oil on canvas, 1850.
Reinforcements were sent from New North.
General Rochambeau's army was secretly marched from Rhode Island to Virginia.
The French fleet took control of the bay.
The British was surrounded, his 9,500-man army outnumbered ministry pointed to a series of blunders by the military 2 to 1 on land and cut off from reinforcement or retreat leadership.
Howe was not pursued by the sea.
The Franco-American victory broke the resolve of the British government.
Historians acknowledge British mistakes, but they attribute the rebels' victory to French aid and the states of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia.
Astutely York and the Continental Congress pressed the Iroquois to give up their land to Washington and the Ohio Indians.
Despite being at a clear disadvantage, the British were not allowed to carry away any negroes or other of the war, the American difficult years of war.
The property guaranteed freedom of navigation.
The American government gave Washington a bigger return than the British generals.
Local chants to pursue legal claims for prewar debts and militiamen provided the edge in the 1777 victory at Sara, which led to the return of toga and forced Cornwallis from the Carolinas in 1781.
The Treaty of Versailles was decided by the American people, who made peace with France and Spain.
They were not nists who were aggressive.
The American ally gained a lot.
Spain reclaimed these farmers and artisans, but not the strategic fortress at in payment for supplies, and thousands of soldiers took Gibraltar.
France received the Caribbean island of them as pay, even as the currency literally depreciated in Tobago, small solace for a war that had sharply their pockets.
France's national debt was quadrupled because of inflation.
The paper currency was accepted by those.
The treaties gave the individual tax a small amount of money.
Multiple dence and access to the trans-Appalachian west were changed by millions of dollars.
After Yorktown, diplomats took two years to conclude a peace treaty.
The French and Spanish were still hoping to seize a West fronted with political authority when talks began in Paris in April 1782.
"Which of us is Indian island or Gibraltar?"
Would power come from John Adams and John Jay.
If the Treaty of Alliance was to be used to control the new republican institutions, who would ated secretly with the British?
They were worried about the status of peace and the loss of the sugar island.
The American diplomats secured favorable terms.
The Second Continental Congress urged issippi River in May 1776, after American independence and relinquishing its claims to lands south of the Great Lakes and east of the Miss.
The British didn't insist on the Americans to reject royal authority and establish separate territory for their Indian allies.
In trying to get repub lican governments.
Most states complied quickly.
As Britain lost control of its multiethnic empire in North America, China's Qing dynasty consolidated its authority over borderlands peoples.
Europeans relied on China's Growing ethnographic descriptions of Native Americans to understand the peoples and territories they hoped to control, but Chinese authorities used prose, poetry, and illustrations to make sense of their new subjects.
These excerpts from a set of "Miao albums" show the cultural characteristics they observed in a group of non Chinese people.
The Bulong Zhongjia and the Gedou Miao are located in the same area.
Their customs are similar to those of the Huangping.