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18 -- Part 5: New Worldviews and Ways of Life
The author of works praising England and popularizing English scientific progress lived at Cirey.
Voltaire was a reformer, not a revolutionary, in social and political matters.
Voltaire didn't believe in social and economic equality.
By which the citizen only depends on the laws which protect the freedom of the feeble against the ambitions of the strong, was what Voltaire thought.
His social and political beliefs were not as radical as his religious positions.
He believed in a deistic God.
A mechanistic universe in which God acted like a great clockmaker who built an orderly system and then stepped aside and let it run was imagined by Voltaire.
All forms of religious intolerance were hated by most of the philosophes, as they believed it led to fa naticism and savage, inhuman action.
The strength of the philosophes lies in their number, dedication, and organization.
Science, religion and mortality were questioned.
Out-of-date social institutions were criticized.
Different European countries have different forms of enlightenment thought.
Reform-minded philosophers and writers formed their own societies with different interests and points of view.
The Scottish Enlightenment focused on pragmatic and scientific reasoning.
David Hume argued that religious skepticism had a powerful impact at home and abroad.
The human mind is a bundle of impressions, according to the teachings of Locke.
Our reason can't tel us anything about questions that can't be verified by sense experience, such as questions about the origin of the universe or the existence of God.
The Enlightenment's faith in the power of reason was undermined by Hume's rationalistic inquiry.
Adam Smith was a pioneer of the new field of political economy.
Reform-minded people in central and eastern Europe rejected the deism of the pursuit of self-interest.
They tried to integrate the findings of a competitive market to improve living conditions, rendering scientific revolution with the teachings of established churches.
Gottfried government intervention tried to reconcile philosophy with faith by arguing that God allowed evil to exist as a means of allowing imperfect humans to with Adam.
He argued that the world must be the best since it was created by an omnipotent and benevolent God.
Enlightenment would almost surely follow if serious thinkers were given the freedom to speak their minds in public.
The cautious eastern European attitude towards state authority was epitomized by Kant.
In their private lives, individuals must obey all laws, no matter how unreasonable, and should be punished for "impertinent" criticism.
Enhancing Enlightenment thought was urbanization.
The spread of Enlightenment ideas was encouraged by the rise of new institutions and practices in the city after 1750.
The production and consumption of books grew from about 1700 to 1789, and the types of books people read changed.
After 1750, the proportion of religious and devotional books in Paris declined.
The educated public is increasingly reading in a new way.
Some scholars call it a reading revolution.
The old style of reading centered on sacred texts.
There was a surge in book consumption in the 18th century.
The Roman goddess of wisdom is depicted in the ads for the latest works at this bookshop in France.
There are large packets of books ready to be shipped.
A broader field of books constantly changed while reading.
Texts could be questioned and reading became silent.
New ways of relating to the written word were ushered in by the reading revolu tion.
The conversation, discussion, and debate encouraged by an urban environment played a role in the Enlightenment.
Paris set an example for other French and European cities.
There they encouraged the exchange of ideas between the rich and the poor.
Soft pastels, ornate interiors, discuss literature, science, and sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids were all hall- philosophy.
The rococo style was popular in Eu rope from 1720 to 1780.
The rise of the novel as a literary genre was closely associated with the rise of women as authors and readers.
Strong emotions and intimate family love were celebrated in the novel.
A number of institutions emerged for the rest of society, despite the fact that salon membership and artistic endeavors were mostly restricted to the well-born and the extremely talented.
People who couldn't afford their own books could use the libraries.
The coffeehouses that first appeared in the late 17th century became meccas of discussion.
The intel lic sphere was an idealized space where members of society came together to discuss the issues of the day.
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