The Western Allies were not prepared to attack Germany directly through France.
An American force took control of the French colonies.
The Al ied forces invaded Italy in the spring of 1943.
Mussolini was deposed and the new Italian government accepted surrender in September 1943.
Italy seemed to have been liberated.
Mussolini was put at the head of a puppet government after being rescued in a raid.
Rome and all of northern Italy were taken over by the German armies.
On April 29, 1945, the German armies rendered to the Al ies.
Mussolini had been captured two days before.
He was put to death the next day.
The greatest naval invasion in history took place on June 6, 1944, when American and British forces landed on the beaches of Normandy, France.
The U.S. and British forces hit several beaches at daybreak as Allied ships and bombers provided cover.
At a price of three thousand casualties, the U.S. troops secured full control of Omaha Beach.
The Germans were unable to bring up reserves because of the ied air power.
American troops crossed the Rhine into Germany in 1945.
The outskirts of Warsaw were reached by the Soviets by August 1944.
The Red Army and American forces met on the Elbe River.
Europe was overrun by the Allies after they closed their vise on Nazi Germany.
Hitler committed suicide as the Soviets fought their way into Berlin, and the remaining German commanders capitulated on May 7.
The fate of the war in Asia was decided by the greatest naval battles in history.
In the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942, an American carrier force stopped the Japanese advance on Port Moresby and relieved Australia from the threat of invasion.
The United States gradually gained control of the air and sea.
The United States produced more sand aircraft in 1943 than Japan did in the entire war.
The "island hopping" campaign began in July 1943.
By 1944 hundreds of American submarines were decimating shipping and economic links in Japan.
After the Battle of Guadalcanal in August 1942, the U.S. Marines and Army troops rarely took prisoners of war from the Japanese.
The resistance American forces faced in the central and western Pacific in 1943 and 1944 hardened them.
As it moved toward Japan, the war intensified due to spiral ing violence, mutual hatred, and dehumanizing racial stereotypes.
The Japanese home islands had a seventeen year old paign.
The bright blue-white "lightning flash" that she saw in October 1944 was a fiery orange ball.
Thirty years after the atomic attack, Yamagata American forces painted this scene.
The Japa An incinerated woman, poised as if running with her baby clutched to her nese, lies near a water tank piled high with charred corpses.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a disaster for the Japa nese.
The Japanese navy was finished after Leyte Gulf.
Despite massive defeats, Japanese troops continued to fight with courage and deter mination, leading American commanders to the conclusion that the conquest of Japan might cost American casualties and Japanese lives.
Japan's industry and cities were largely destroyed by American bombing.
The Japanese seemed determined to fight on.
On August 6 and 9, 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on Japan.
The Japanese announced their surrender on August 14.
The dramatic events of the 1930s and 1940s show how connected the world's inhabitants are.
The financial foundations of the wealthiest capitalist economies were damaged by the Great Depression.
Global death and destruction is brought about by another world war.
The world's leaders revived the idea of a League of Nations at war's end and formed the United Nations to prevent tragedies from happening again.
The world became more divided after the United Nations tried to bring nations together.
The Third World of nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America will be shown in Chapters 32 and 33.
The bonds of colonialism were broken by many of them by turning the nineteenth-century European ideology of nationalism against its creators.
There are horrible atrocities that plague the world in our time.
In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge inflicted genocide on its people, as well as civil war, which led to atrocities in Bosnia, Rwanda, Burundi, and Sudan, recalling the horrors of the Second World War.
Today's dictators are losing control over access to information and are being challenged and overthrown by citizens with cell phones, cameras, and Internet connections who expose their actions to the world.
The 2010 and 2011 "Arab Spring" is an example of this trend.