The Vera Brittain was marked forever by her devastating blows over wartime experiences.
The war promoted social equality and lessened the gap between rich and poor.
Greater equality was reflected in full employment, rationing, and a sharing of hardship.
Society became more equal despite some war profiteering.
Many soldiers and civilians supported their governments during the first two years of the war.
People were behind their leaders because of their belief in a just cause and patriotism.
The governments used censorship and propaganda to support popu lar support.
People began to crack under the strain of war by the spring of 1916.
Irish nationalists in Dublin tried to take advantage of this situa tion and rose up against British rule in the Easter Rebellion.
On every home front, there were strikes and protest marches over inadequate food.
The French army suffered huge losses in the Second Battle of the Aisne in April 1917, and nearly half of the infantry revolted for two months.
The Central Powers had the most strain.
The leaders of the Czech and Yugoslav countries demanded democratic states for their peoples.
The strain of war was visible in Germany.
Prewar social conflicts were re-emerging by 1917.
Germany's brutal invasion of Belgium in 1914 is dramatized in a 1915 French poster.
Anti-German propaganda featured the "rape of Belgium" prominently.
The 1917 Russian Revolution was related to the Great War.
The Russian Revolu tion created a new prototype of state and society.
Like their allies and their enemies, the Russians embraced war in 1914.
The war began to take its tol after Russia was united.
Russia's supplies of shel s and ammunition were quickly exhausted and the German armies inflicted terrible losses.
Russian soldiers were told to find their arms among the dead when they were sent to the front.
The lower house of the parliament and local governments led the effort towards full mobiliza tion on the home front.
Russia mobilized less effectively for total war than did the other warring nations, despite these efforts improving the military situation.
The problem was leadership.
The 1905 revo lution resulted in complete control of the bureaucracy and the army being retained by the Tsar Nicholas II.
Nicholas was against popular involvement.
The tsar's leadership became increasingly critical of as a result of this.
Nicholas announced in September 1915 that he was heading to the front to lead Russia's armies.
His departure was a turning point.
His wife took control of the government.
She tried to rule in her husband's absence with an uneducated preacher.
She trusted him because he claimed he could stop the bleeding of her son.
The government went toward revolution in this atmosphere of unreality.
Three members of the high aristocracy murdered a man in 1916.
In the meantime, food shortages worsened.
Riots spread throughout the city after a women's bread march in Petrograd.
Discipline broke down as the tsar ordered troops to restore order.
On March 12, 1917, the Duma declared a govern ment.
Nicholas abdicated three days later.
The social revolution was abdication of the tsar and the liberal republic was established after generations of authoritarianism.
A new government formed in May 1917, which included the social establishment of a transitional ist Alexander Kerensky, refused to seize large landholdings and give them to peasants, fearing that such drastic action in the countryside would only complete the Lenin disintegration.
The Petrograd Soviet consisted of two to three thousand workers, a huge, fluctu soldiers, and socialist intel.
A mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and orders was issued by this counter- or half-government.
The Army socialist intellectuals were most famous.
In March 1917, officers were stripped of their authority and given power to committees of common soldiers.
The order led to a lot of discipline in the army.
Peasant soldiers began voting with their feet.
They returned to their vil ages to get a share of the land, which peasants were simply seizing from the owners.