Chapter 33 -- Part 1: The Contemporary World in Historical Perspective
Critical thinking skills are given by the approaches to the history of world societies in the preceding chapters.
Through this lens, we can see contemporary events and debates as subjects of study that we can use the same tools we use for interpreting the past.
A growing number of nations have pursued free trade since the end of the Cold War.
Past struggles have shaped these new experiences, aided by revolutions in communications and information technology.
Despite the changes, there are still stubborn regional and political conflicts in many parts of the world.
In the past, humans have had the ability to shape, adapt, and transform the problems they face.
Liberalism was embraced by political leaders during the transitions to democracy from Russia and eastern Europe to Latin America.
liberalism emerged as the world's dominant political and economic philosophy by the beginning of the twenty-first century.
There are limits to liberalism's reach and effectiveness.
Economic liberalism tends to increase social inequality and the disparity of wealth between nations and regions.
A growing range of social activism aimed at reducing social inequality, gender, ethnic, and racial marginalization, and the environmental costs of economic development has been met by liberalism.
The tension between liberalism and activism is an example of the conflicting pressures that shape the contemporary world.
The world's growing population has led to a revolution in agricultural sciences.
Although new technologies have helped meet the world's demand for food, the diversion of water resources and the expansion of farming at the expense of forests remind us that new technologies can bring costs.
The end of the Cold War did not result in peace, but in conflicts around the world.
Conservative, often religious reactions have been met with the increase of communications, travel, and technology.
Some of the most intense reactions have come from movements in the Middle East and Africa.
New regional relationships emerged after the end of the Cold War.
The leader of the Spanish-speaking Americas was Mexico, both highly industrialized and economically integrated with the United States.
Brazil, a rapidly industrializing country with 200 million people and vast territory and resources, emerged as the dominant nation-state in South America.
France and Germany were re-emerging as economic powers in Europe.
South Africa and Nigeria became the leading powers in sub-Saharan Africa.
Iran projected its influence over neighbors like Iraq as it became a regional power in the Middle East.
Several other Asian countries were determined to join China, India, and Japan in becoming leading regional powers.
After the Cold War, countries with significant economic influence became more assertive.
The end of the Cold War reduced superpower pressures that intensified regional conflicts, but other factors continued to feed conflicts that killed over a million people and dispersed hundreds of thousands of refugees.
Since 2000, new conflicts have caused millions more deaths and new currents of refugees, particularly in Syria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Afghanistan.
The wars are often fought between ethnic groups.
A number of nations have developed nuclear arms.
The Cold War resulted in intense competition for the development of increasingly powerful atomic weapons, and it also meant massive spending by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Europe on other military technologies.
The superpowers and their allies tried to restrict access to nuclear weapons, but they also sold a lot of conventional arms to other nations.
Fears of leukemia, bone cancer, and genetic damage were caused by atomic tests during the Cold War.
Scientists called for a ban on bomb testing.
More than 150 countries joined the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union in banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1963.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was signed in 1970.
The treaty did not stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
The nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union was so intense that both sides sought ways of slowing it.
Nuclear weapons were pursued by other nations to bolster their defense.
The leaders of France and China ignored the test ban and developed their own nuclear weapons.
India's nuclear test in 1974 frightened Pakistan, which pursued its own nuclear weapons.
Within weeks of each other, India and Pakistan tested nuclear devices.
Nuclear arms were discreetly pursued by other nations.
Israel is thought to have had an arsenal of nuclear weapons since the 1970s, though it has never publicly confirmed this.
Israel's apparent nuclear superiority was threatening to Arab states that had tried to destroy Israel.
Israel attacked and destroyed the Iraqi nuclear reactor in 1981 after Iraq tried to develop nuclear capability.
The proliferation of nuclear weapons helped mobilize the international community and contributed to positive developments through the 1980s and 1990s.
Between 1983 and 2003 Argentina, Romania, Brazil, South Africa, and Libya all agreed to abandon their nuclear weapons programs.
Several of the former Soviet republics that had nuclear weapons returned them to Russia.
Nuclear material, technology, and missiles that could carry atomic bombs were monitored by international agencies.
The nonproliferation treaty was signed by 190 countries after these measures encouraged confidence in global cooperation.
Nuclear proliferation has continued despite efforts.
In 2003 the United States accused Iran of seeking to build nuclear weapons, and for many years diplomatic efforts, sanctions, and other punitive measures by France, Germany, Britain, China, the United States, and Russia failed to induce Iran to limit its nuclear program.
There is a threat that enriched nuclear materials will fall into the hands of terrorist organizations or that countries with nuclear weapons technology will share it with other nations.
North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons and missile technology that could allow it to launch atomic weapons at South Korea and Japan intensified the tensions between North Korea and the United States.
North Korea tested its first nuclear device in 2006 as each side accused the other of failing to live up to its agreements.
After 2009, North Korean authorities pursued the development of long-range missiles capable of delivering a bomb, engaging in nuclear brinksmanship not seen since the Cold War.
Iran agreed to freeze its nuclear energy program after the United States, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Russia imposed sanctions.
International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors and Iranian technicians gather to cut connections in Iran's Natanz nuclear facility.
The conflicts of 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The United States was drawn into violent conflicts in the twenty-first century due to political upheaval caused by the invasions of Afghanistan and Iran.
The country was occupied by the Soviet armed forces in 1989.
The military and political vacuum left by the Soviet Union was filled in 1996 by a puritanical Islamic movement called the Taliban.
The Taliban imposed harsh restrictions on women in order to transform Afghan society.
The Taliban government in Afghanistan gave safe haven to al-Qaeda, which included fighters who fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan.
In the 1990s, al-Qaeda attacked targets in Africa and the Middle East.
The World Trade Center towers collapsed after being hit by jet airliners.
Four passenger planes were hijacked in the United States on September 11, 2001.
The Pentagon in Washington, D.C. and a third building in New York City are believed to have been hit.
Three thousand people were killed by terrorist attacks.
In the 1990s, the U.S. government attacked al-Qaeda but failed to destroy it.
The Taliban government in Afghanistan hosted the al-Qaeda leadership.
NATO members, as well as Russia, Pakistan, and rebel groups in Afghanistan, were formed by the United States after the Taliban refused.
The coalition pursued al-Qaeda and deposed the Taliban.
After the U.S.-led coalition deposed the Taliban in 2001 and installed a new government in Afghanistan, it faced a lengthy guerrilla war against Taliban forces that controlled rural areas.
Afghanistan has a long history of resisting foreign military incursions.
After the invasion of Afghanistan, acts of terrorism increased around the world and some members of al-Qaeda found refuge in Pakistan.
Local groups acting in conflicts in the Middle East and Africa continued to act under al-Qaeda's name despite the fact that the United States and allied governments destroyed al-Qaeda's leadership.
In 2004, and 2005, there were bombings that killed 191 people in Madrid and 56 in London, as well as wounding thousands.
The assassination of Benazir Bhutto was blamed on a suicide bomber who may have had links to al-Qaeda.
The U.S. killed bin Laden.
In the decade after the Persian Gulf War, Iraq was under constant pressure from the United States to give up its chemical and biological weapons.
The U.S. government implied that there were connections between Iraq and al-Qaeda in order to build domestic support for an invasion.
Iraq's chemical and biological weapons were destroyed by the UN in 2002.
France, Russia, China, Germany, and a majority of the smaller states argued for continued weapons monitoring, and France threatened to veto any resolution authorizing an invasion of Iraq.
Security Council resolutions allowed the invasion of Iraq.
A coalition of U.S.-led forces defeated the Iraqi military, and in the power vacuum that followed, armed groups representing all three main groups in Iraq -- Sunni Muslims, Shi'ite Muslims, and Kurds -- carried out daily attacks on Iraqi military and police, government officials, religious Estimates of Iraqi deaths since the beginning of the war ranged from 100,000 to over 1 million.
The violence continued even after the U.S. military occupation ended.
The violent environment of postwar Iraq became a place where militant groups identified with al-Qaeda, despite the fact that the connection between al-Qaeda and the government of Saddam Hussein did not exist.
The Islamic State is the most powerful of these groups.
The political vacuum created by the U.S. invasion of Iraq and the Syrian civil war gave rise to a radical Islamic regime that spanned regions of the two countries.
The heir to al-Qaeda was the Islamic State.
It used a sophisticated Internet footprint to recruit disaffected youth around the world to join its ranks, prompting terrorist attacks in 2015 and 2016 by individuals claiming to act in ISIS's name in the United States, France, Turkey, and Bangladesh.
The circulation of peoples over great distances is what drives much of the history in this textbook.
One of the great engines of history is migration, though its experience exposes one of the major contradictions in the way liberalization has been conducted: governments have pressed for the free circulation of goods and capital, but have sought to limit the movement of people across borders.
National immigration policies can be very different.
European Union member countries allow the free movement of citizens from other EU nations.
Even as barriers to trade and investment have fallen, restrictions on migration have increased.
The United States and Mexico have a border.
As the United States conquered land north of the border, migrants have migrated throughout North America.
The United States and Mexico implemented a free-trade agreement that made it easier for goods and capital to cross the border, but at the same time the U.S. government began building a wall at its border with Mexico.
The border between the United States and Mexico became a flash point in the 2016 U.S. presidential election due to concerns over the movement of peoples and the free circulation of goods and capital.
The British vote to leave the European Union and the rise of nationalist parties in continental Europe was an expression of the nationalist sentiment that Donald Trump rode into the presidency.
The votes against migration that resulted in the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union and the election of Donald Trump reflected the disparity in wealth distribution.
Historical connections, such as the spaces shared by indigenous and Latino peoples on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, are one such force.
The second is the intensification of trade, which affects national economies and the connections between them.
The history of U.S. military intervention can be divided into three parts: countries that are the sites of conflict spurred by or involving the United States are reshaped in ways that often create migrant and refugee circuits connected to the United States.
Future immigration from the Middle East may fit in with the experience of immigration following U.S. military intervention in Central America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia.
Since the 1960s millions of people from South Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laotians have found legal refuge in the U.S. due to conflicts with the United States.
In countries where economic growth has slowed, restrictions on immigration have increased.
As Japanese industry boomed in the 1980s, the country welcomed descendants of Japanese emigrants who had settled in South America in the first half of the century.
More than two hundred thousand descendants of Japanese migrants to Brazil and Peru now live in Japan as temporary workers.
Brazilians of Japanese descent attend a church service.
The circuit of migration to Japan dwindled as manufacturing and economic growth slowed in the 1990s.
The major factors that drive international migration are pursuit of economic opportunity and flight from persecution.
A migratory circuit is a deep connection created between two regions through an initial experience of migration.
Migrants face discrimination when they become ethnic, religious, or linguistic minorities in their new countries.
Zimbabwean workers in South Africa experienced discrimination in the form of violence and oppression.
In 2015, the European Union became the setting of a new migration crisis as over 1 million refugees fled armed conflicts and poverty in Africa and the Middle East.
The refugees had to contend with a number of challenges, including the hostility of people and governments in eastern Europe, where countries like Hungary had once welcomed East Germans fleeing communism but now blocked the transit of refugees.
The principle of free movement that had been a pillar of the EU was threatened by the election of British voters who decided to leave the EU.
The students and their teacher are at a high school in Wisconsin.
In 2008, at a large urban high school in the U.S. South, Sieng, a seventeen-year-old Mnong refugee, read the pledge in his JROTC class.
His aspiration to join the U.S. Marine Corps was an act of belonging that bridged both his life in the United States and his sense of his family and its history.
The central highlands of Vietnam are home to a diverse group of ethnic minorities.
Many of them had converted to Christianity.
Many Mnong provided military service with the United States during the Vietnam War.
Many fled the country after the war ended in 1975, joining the current of refugees who have settled in Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and later Cambodia.
When Sieng was a child, his family left Vietnam.
We had a hard time in Vietnam and had to leave.
We didn't have a choice because we didn't have food or land.
At the age of sixteen, Sieng arrived in the United States and did not know any of the languages of his new school.
Sieng wanted to be a Marine so he could help other refugees.
He said that a man needs to take care of the family too.
Being a refugee gave Sieng a sense of pride, a sense of what he and his family had accomplished, and a sense of what he wanted for the future.
As the oldest male child, Sieng was second in command in the home while his father worked the third shift at a shipping facility.
Sieng was an ethnic minority and a refugee in the United States.
He was not understood.
People call me Spanish.
Some kids asked me to speak in Spanish.
Mexican students think I'm Chinese.
Sieng found comfort in his identity as a refugee, reflecting on his family's past, and his role in facilitating its journey, as he faced a new environment, struggling to be understood.
Permission was granted for it to be reproduced by Taylor & Francis.
Cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America expanded at an astonishing pace, and only two were in developing countries.
Outside of North America and Europe, forty-eight of the fifty-nine megacities anticipated to exist by the year 2017 will be.
The growth of the population in the developing nations was important.
Urban residents gained from a medical revolution that provided improved health care but only gradually began to reduce the size of their families.
More than half of urban growth came from rural migration.
In the developing nations, manufacturing jobs were concentrated in cities.
Half of the industrial jobs in Mexico were located in Mexico City.
Migrants have streamed to cities even when industrial jobs are hard to find.
The need for agricultural laborers was reduced as large landowners found it more profitable to produce export crops.
Migrants can be sent to cities from the countryside.
In 1925, only 20% of the world's population was urban.
In 2000 the urban proportion in the world was about 50 percent.
The proportion is expected to reach two-thirds by about 25 years.
The move to cities is still in its early stages in Africa and Asia, where the most rapid urban growth will occur.
The growing number of poor people in the city earned precarious livings in a bazaar economy made up of traders and unskilled labor.
Regular salaried jobs were rare and highly prized, and a complex world of tiny, unregulated businesses and service occupations dominated the bazaar economy.
Peddlers and pushcart operators hawked their wares, and sweatshops and homebased workers manufactured cheap goods for popular consumption.
These workers did not have job security, unemployment insurance, or pensions.
The merchant women are selling vegetables in Pisac.
During the Industrial Revolution, large-scale urban migration profoundly affected traditional family patterns in developing countries.
In Africa and Asia, the majority of migrants were young men looking for work.
The consequences of male out-migration to cities were mixed for rural women.
Asian and African women were faced with additional burdens in managing the farm and sustaining families.
African and Asian women began to assert their rights.
Whole families migrated to squatter settlements in Latin America.
It was more likely to be permanent.
The reason single women were more likely to move to the cities was because they were in high demand as domestic servants.
Women left maledominated villages to escape narrow social and economic opportunities.
In cities the concentration of wealth in few hands has resulted in different levels of consumption, education, and employment.
The gap between rich and poor can be measured both in the countryside and in the city.
Wealthy city dwellers in developing countries had more in common with each other than with the poorer urban and rural people in their own country.
The elites have favored globalization that connects them with wealthier nations.
The map shows the gap in wealth between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
The most urbanized countries are the wealthiest.
The relative-size ratios on the map will change as market capitalism expands in China, Vietnam, and other Asian countries and in Latin America and Africa.
One of the highest per capita GDPs in the world can be found in tiny Iceland.
Multinationals, which are business firms that operate in a number of different countries and tend to adopt a global rather than a national perspective, were a striking feature of global interdependence in the early 1950s.
Their rise was partly due to the revival of capitalism after the Second World War, as well as the worldwide drive for rapid industrialization.
Multinationals treated the world as one big market, coordinating complex activities across political boundaries and escaping political controls.
Business firms that operate in a number of different countries tend to adopt a global perspective.
The globalization of consumption is reflected in the shoppers at a Sam's Club.
Global commodity chains, multinational corporations, and converging consumer tastes, particularly among the middle class, create increasingly similar experiences across the world.
The impact of multinational corporations on less industrialized countries has been mixed.
Multinationals helped spread the products and values of consumer society in the developing world.
Multinational corporations are among the main beneficiaries of economic liberalism, as they are able to move goods, capital, and technology more fluidly and more intensely because of growing openness of national markets and economic integration.
There are costs to the growing interconnectedness of world markets.
The band was formed in 1984 in the northeastern Brazilian city of Recife, in the region first settled by the Portuguese to cultivate sugarcane with slave labor.
The song "Free World, Inc." by Mundo Livre S/A is about globalization from the perspective of those who live in poorer cities of developing countries.
They are always looking for new clues.
We used to call large emerging markets on all continents countries.
We are also talking about macroeconomics and geopolitics.
We have to change things.
The beats don't get beaten.
Permission was granted for this use.
Jerry Davila translated.
Modern social reformers want to end global inequality, racism, and sexism and expand human rights, just as nineteenth-century social reformers did.
The victory of the democratic movements in Latin America and Europe and the end of the apartheid system in South Africa could not have been achieved without the help of social movements.
Activists looked beyond national borders to form alliances as movements for human rights and social reform gained ground in the 1960s and 1970s.
Climate change, women's rights, nuclear disarmament, environmental protection, and other issues became both local and global efforts.
The global anti-apartheid movement kept pressure on nations to apply economic and political sanctions on the white-minority regime in South Africa.
The antiapartheid movement was used to address local problems.
In Brazil, anti-apartheid activism helped draw attention to the country's own racial inequalities, while in the United States, anti-apartheid activism on college campuses helped students organize movements concerned with other issues such as gender equality.
The success of the boycott was exemplified by its limitations.
Critics said that the Swiss company's marketing of powdered baby formula in poor countries posed a risk to children.
Activists called on consumers to boycott products.
At first, the company tried to undermine the movement.
According to the president of the company's Brazilian division, the boycott is an attack on the free world's economic system.
"3 Condemnation of a company."
The company agreed to follow the standards.
Multinational corporations operated beyond the reach of single governments and often operated in regions with weak regulatory or investigatory structures as a result of the movement's success.
It was difficult to hold them accountable when they were unethical.
Outside the realm of public accountability, social movements and nongovernmental organizations acted.
Concerns about chemical waste, rapid consumption of energy and food supplies, and threats to wildlife began the modern environmental movement.
By the 1970s citizens were joining together in nongovernmental organizations to protect and restore the natural environment.
Rachel Carson was an early supporter of the environmental health movement.
Along with the possibility of the extinction of mankind by nuclear war, the central problem of our age has become the contamination of man's total environment with such substances of incredible potential for harm -- substances that accumulate in the tissues of plants and animals and even penetrate the germ cells to shatter or alter Carson acted out of concern that damage to one part of an ecological system could have consequences for the whole system.
As a result of global warming, average temperatures have increased worldwide in recent decades, a trend that most scientists expect will intensify without curbs on carbon emissions.
The Industrial Revolution is believed to have started man-made climate change.
The greenhouse effect is caused by the release of hydrocarbons produced through the burning of fossil fuels.
Industrialization and increased consumption in the developing world resulted in increased global carbon emissions.
The majority of the world's scientists believe that the burning of fossil fuels has caused a greenhouse effect that has increased global temperatures over time.
The effects of global warming will include a catastrophic rise in sea levels that threatens to put many coastal cities and islands underwater, as well as a destruction of the earth's ozone layer, which shields the planet from harmful solar radiation.
Climate change is a growing concern in the twenty-first century.
The Kyoto Protocol amended the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change because of international concerns over global warming.
The Kyoto Protocol will reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.
There were 191 countries that had agreed to it.
The United States was the most notable exception.
The United Nations and environmental activists have continued to pursue an international environmental accord that can bring all nations into a shared effort to combat climate change.
The voluntary limits on greenhouse gas emissions called for in the Paris Climate Agreement would be achieved by changing regulations in areas such as electicity production.
The demonstrators are protesting the introduction of genetically modified crops.
There are a variety of reasons people oppose genetically modified crops.
Opponents fear that genetically modified foods have health risks.
Other opponents believe that the proliferation of genetically modified crops could damage the environment by reducing the variety of strains that are planted, as well as damaging other organisms such as bees.
Small farmers who can't afford the patented seeds of multinational companies such as Monsanto are at a disadvantage compared to large farmers, and that's why opponents of the genetically modified organisms note.
The protesters in this image are part of a movement for food sovereignty that advocates for the production of crops from locallysourced seeds.
In the United States and western Europe, the growing focus on individual freedom since the 1960s has opened social space for same-sex unions and affinities, which had been suppressed by religious and cultural strictures.
The human rights of people who are lesbian, gay, or trans were championed by the gay rights movement.
The AIDS crisis symbol was created by the advocacy campaign for AIDS research using the words "Silence = Death" beneath a pink triangle.
Gay rights activists were able to challenge discrimination in employment, education, and public life by the 1990s.
Canada was the first country to allow same-sex marriage.
Many European countries followed suit.
The legalization of same-sex marriage was not only a Western achievement, it was also provided legal protections for families that stopped shy of marriage in many other nations.
The U.S. Supreme Court invalidated state laws against same-sex marriage.
Marriage rights give same-sex families legal equality to manage property rights and financial activities, such as the ability to inherit a home, as a result of the movement toward recognition of same-sex marriage.
Latin America's first same-sex marriage took place in Argentina in 2009.
The Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, called on the world community to take action in twelve areas of critical concern to women: poverty, access to education and training, access to health care, violence against women, and war.
International Women's Day, March 8, and the UN Conferences on Women have served as platforms for framing the rights of women as a basic component of human rights.
The Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing was addressed by Hillary Rodham Clinton.