Edited Invalid date
ChAPTER 9 -- Part 2: The Spread of Civilizations and the
Africa was often in contact with other areas of the world despite being portrayed as a dark and isolated place.
Social and cultural innovations were lated from Asia and Europe.
There is evidence that political and cultural influences from Africa spread to Europe and Asia, even though the contacts were not always in one direction.
The desert is moving across a series of historical processes.
Several people lived in the area of the Sahara during this period, according to the Archeo Mediterranean coast.
As the temperatures in the Sahara rose, the conditions began to change.
Much of the area was desert by 3000 b.c.
The process continues today.
The Sudan became a center of cultural development after about 300 b.c.e.
Major developments in the history of Africa took place in the Nile valley and Mediterranean.
Africa is not subject to a lot of temperature fluctuations, but there are a lot of different environments on the planet.
Climates have changed over time.
The Sahara region became a desert because of the changing climate.
Many scholars believe that the spread of agriculture and iron throughout Africa is evidence of the continent's links to centers of civilization in the Near East and the Mediterranean world.
Many people were pushed to the south by the drying of the Sahara.
The ancestors of the Negro peoples were these.
They settled in scattered hunting-and-gathering bands near lakes and rivers.
The first domesticated crops in the Near East were mil et and sorghum, which are not African but west Asian.
The route of agricultural distribution may have gone through Egypt or Ethiopia, which had contacts across the Red Sea with the Arabian peninsula.
There is evidence of agriculture before 3000 b.c.e.
herding may have preceded cultivation in Africa.
The long wet period from 12,000 to 7500 years ago may have caused these developments.
Africans began to develop their own crops, such as certain varieties of rice, once the idea of planting spread.
African crops were domesticated in a band that extends from Ethiopia across the southern Sudan to west Africa.
Bananas were introduced from southeast Asia.
Outside Africa also brought livestock.
Domestic sheep were introduced from Asia.
The use of horses and chariots to traverse the desert and trade routes across the desert can be seen in the rock paint ings.
Horses became the symbol of authority and power in some states that developed large cavalry armies.
In the 14th century b.c.e., the later west African empire of Mali could field 10,000 riders according to one observer.
The tsetse fly carried sleeping sickness, or trypanoso ness that limited pastoralism, to which horses, cattle, and humans are susceptible.
There were no cavalry campaigns in western and central Africa.
African cavalries were brought to a halt by this tiny foe.
The balance between limits and opportunities was changed by new elements.
It was an efficient means of transportation due to its ability to thrive in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads cheaply.
The camel transformed the desert from a barrier to a route of trade and communication.
Some early copper metallurgy sites have been found in west Africa, but most of Africa moved directly from stone to iron without going through the intermediate stage of copper or bronze.
Iron was worked in the Near East and Anatolia for at least a thousand years before it was used in Africa.
By the 8th century b.c.e., the Phoenicians were able to bring their knowledge of iron smelting to their colonies, such as Carthage in north Africa.
During the last millennium b.c.e., this knowledge penetrated into the forests and savannas of west Africa, at the same time that ironmaking was reaching western Europe.
Evidence of ironmaking has been found in several countries, and iron implements seem to have replaced stone ones at several sites.
The complexity of African societies was changed by this technological shift.
Power was represented by iron.
In west Africa, the blacksmith who made tools and weapons had an important place in society with special religious powers.
Those who knew the secrets of ironmaking gained power.
Ironmaking traveled from the Red Sea into Ethiopia and east Africa and down the Nile into the Sudan, where large African states such as Meroe were in close contact with Egypt.
Within a thousand years, iron had reached the southern part of Africa.
Both agriculture and war are featured in the culture.
The adoption of agriculture and the use of iron tools and weapons were simultaneous in the later stages of the story.
Unlike the peoples of the Americas, metallurgy was a very late and limited development in central Nigeria.
View flashcards and assignments made for the note
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms