1 -- Part 2: . Introducing the World of Psychology
She became one of the most influential theorists of her time.
William James was a critic of structuralism.
Structuralism didn't capture the most important aspects of mental experience according to James.
He argued that the mind was more complex than the elements and could not be broken down into parts.
He said that psychologists who used the structural approach were like people trying to understand a house by studying each brick individually.
James was more interested in the bricks forming a house and the function of it.
How it is useful to people is the most important function of the mind.
This approach was known as functionalism.
To help people adapt to environmental demands was what James felt was the answer.
The idea of functionalism was based on the work of Charles Darwin, who observed that species change over generations.
The William James individuals were more likely to survive and reproduce because of the changes that were made to the environment.
The function basis of evolution is investigated in the process of natural selection.
The offspring of the conscious mind inherit some of the same qualities as their parent.
Natural selection explains how the human of the mind has evolved to help people adapt to their environments and bear children.
James was a pioneer in the field of psychology.
He was the first to admit a woman to study in his graduate seminar at Harvard University.
An early school of thought concerned students, all male, dropped out of the class in response, so James tutored Calkins with the adaptive purpose, or function, individually.
She did not complete the requirements to earn her PhD from Harvard.
She was the first female president of the APA.
Over those who don't.
Freud was trained in medicine.
He worked with people with nervous system disorders at the beginning of his career.
Many of his patients had no medical reason for their paralysis.
He came to believe that psychological factors were to blame.
Freud said that much of human behavior is determined by mental pro cesses.
He believed that the unconscious mental forces included both troubling childhood experiences that were blocked from memory and sexual urges that conflicted with acceptable behavior.
These forces created psychological problems for the individual.
Once the patient's unconscious conflicts are revealed, the therapist helps the patient deal with them.
She had a more profound effect on psychological disorders because of her experience with the process of psychoanalysis and her father's belief in conversations with influential thinkers of the time.
The public view of psychology was influenced by Sigmund Freud and Anna Freud.
Many of their ideas are difficult to test.
The psychology Explore Behavior is influenced by unconscious forces.
Write an example of a topic that each school of thought would investigate and apply the four psychology schools of thought.
The conscious and unconscious experiences of the mind were not studied in the early twentieth century.
Mental experience can't be broken down into common underlying parts according to some researchers.
The behaviorists believed that the conscious mind and the unconscious mind were not appropriate topics for psychological investigation.
This ogy was developed in opposition to structuralism.
People's experiences can't be broken down into parts.
The most prominent Gestalt psycholo Instead, perception is unique for each of them.
The psychologists began to look at how people experience sensory input.
There were questions that led to the development of Gestalt theory.
In contrast to structuralism, what a person experiences is different from the rest of the object.
The study of vision and our understanding of human personality have been influenced by the Gestalt perspective.
The focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes as unscientific was challenged by John B. Watson in 1913.
Behaviorism, ronmental factors, was founded by John B. Watson, who believed that animals learned all behaviors through envi.
The scientific study of how observable study the environmental stimuli, the behavioral Trigger, in particular situa environmental factors affect behavior was something that was believed to be needed by psychologists.
People could predict the behavior of the animals by understanding the stimuli.
The idea that the whole of B. F. Skinner is personal has been furthered by thousands of psychologists.
In the early 1960s, behaviorism dominated psychological research.
The school of thought emphasizes behavior.
The use of rewards to teach children to clean their rooms is a behaviorist principle.
Researchers in the school of behav produce behavior.
Tolman's research with rats was one of the first to show that animals have internal states that create a sense of purpose.
The 1950s saw most schools of thought behavior as a result of events outside of people's control.
Freudians saw unconscious forces as guiding behavior, while behaviorists saw environmental factors as guiding behavior.
The basic goodness of people was emphasized.
The founder of work hard to complete your education and how happy you feel when you achieve humanistic psychology can be investigated by humanistic psychologists.
According to your goal.
The World of PsYchologY encouraged the study of how faith, values, creativity, courage, and hope affect us.
Positive psychology focuses on the quality of relationships and enjoying life.
Chapter 11 will show you how to be positive in your outlook.
In the second half of the twentieth century, researchers continued to gather evidence that learning was not easy.
Mental functions are important for understanding behavior.
The cognitive revolution in psychology was launched in 1957 by George A. Miller and his colleagues.
Cognitive psychology is concerned with investigating mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, attention, learning, memory, problem solving, and decision making.
The brain was important to George Miller.
In the 1980s, cognitive psychologists joined forces with computer scientists.
Researchers who studied the brain are used in this modern school of psychology.
The goal of the collaboration was to find ways to integrate mind and brain.
Neuroscience emerged during the next decade because of cognitive think.
The field of cognitive neuroscience studies the brain.
Understanding mental activity, behavior, and the brain has become a focus of modern psychologists.
The foundation for the development of many subfields in psychology has been laid by this past work.
Specific methods are used to investigate specific topics.
If you were a psychologist, you would apply the subfields of psychology by choosing two subfields that interest you and explaining what research topic you would study in each subfield.
The various schools of thought helped shape how psychologists view mental activity and behavior.
The schools are more focused on the important today than they were in the past.
According to psychologists, phenomena need to be basic goodness of people.
The main subfields of the discipline are studied by a school of thought.
Psychol people think, learn, and remember in many of these subfields.
The beliefs, values, rules, and customs of a group of people have a positive effect on heart rate and blood pressure.
A social psychologist could explore how participating in sports helps teenagers develop leadership skills by sharing a common language and environment.
Other psychologists are learning from one generation to the next.
A culture is made up of beliefs, values, rules, and customs.
Health psychology looks at how psychological factors affect health and well-being.
Our lives are affected by the work of psychologists in many ways.
Different cultures prefer different types of music.
Providing services to individuals and groups is what psychologists focus on in other subfields.
Clinical psychologists help people with mental health problems cope with challenges and crises in their professional, academic and personal lives.
Educational psychology is one of the subfields in which professionals work.
They help students with problems that interfere with learning, design age- appropriate curricula, and conduct aptitude achievement tests.
Where they work depends on whether their primary focus is on research, teaching, clinical practice with patients, or applying scientific findings to improve the quality of daily living.
People who study the brain, the mind, and behavior can work in schools, businesses, universities, or clinics.
Some practitioners apply the findings of psychological research to help people in need of mental health treatment, designing safe and pleasant work environments, counseling people on career paths, or helping teachers design better educational environments.
There is a fuzzy distinction between psychological research and clinical psychology.
Clinical psychologists study psychological disorders as well as treat them, and many researchers are also clinical practitioners.
In the places where psychologists work, psychology is remarkably diverse in its subfields of study.
The psychologists are concerned with almost every aspect of human life.
The type of settings where psychologists work are shown in the chart.
They are psychologists.
Write your answers to the questions and check them out.
Your instructor may be an educational psychologist.
Because psychology is a science, psychologists use specific goals and methods to learn about mental activity, behavior, and the brain processes that underlie them.
The four goals of science can be applied to investigate students' use of active processes to learn material they read in a textbook.
Consider the idea of using a cell phone while driving.
Each of the four goals of psychology needs to be addressed by psychologists.
Different studies might look at these goals to better understand how cell phones affect driving.
The phenomenon that is happening is described by psychologists.
The researchers might say if people talk or text on the phone more while driving.
When psychologists describe a phenomenon, they predict when it will happen.
They might look at how often a cell phone is used.
Researchers can use an association between using a cell phone and crashing to predict future cell phone use while driving.
The goal of control may be pursued by psychologists by changing one factor to another.
Maybe the driver's personality causes this outcome.
People who are more likely to take risks are more likely to use cell phones while driving.
It is possible for researchers to know that using the cell phone and not some other factor is responsible for the effects of their studies.
psychologists try to explain a phenomenon In this case, researchers will have described and predicted cell phone use while driving, and they will have controlled the situation in which cell phone use leads to poor driving.
The effects of cell phone use on driving are likely to be studied further.
Careful research using the scientific method lets psychologists understand many aspects of using a cell phone while driving.
Good theories can be developed for the behavior and its effects.
People continue to use their cell phones while driving despite the danger.
Scientists, technology developers, and policymakers can use the knowledge from psychological research to create strategies to reduce this dangerous behavior.
The Evaluating Psychology in the Real World feature will help you use the three steps in critical thinking to explore the claim and determine if you should accept it or not.
Because they are scientists, psychologists base their beliefs about behavior and mental processes on observing the world and measuring various aspects of it.
The scientific method is used to conduct empirical research by psychologists.
There are steps involved in this process.
Second, the processes that psychologists use in the scientific method must be objective and free from bias.
The procedures have to be research methods.
Referring to a research study is called replication.
The scientific method involves replication.
It supports or undermines the results.
If you want to know if you should accept the claim in the news and on the internet, you need to read the learning tip on p. 7.
Motorists who talk on cell phones while driving are as impaired as drunk drivers according to a study.
Frank Drews said that people are as impaired when they drive and talk on a cell phone as they are when they drive drunk.
After getting tipsy, the volunteers in the new study drove a virtual vehicle four times: once undistracted, once using a handheld cell phone in real conversations, then with a hands-free phone, and finally after getting tipsy.
9 percent of the volunteers were used to three to five drinks a week and were paid slower to hit the brakes when necessary.
The drinks were on the house, but were 19 percent slower to resume normal juice.
Three study participants used blood tests and breathalyzers to measure alcohol levels while talking on the phone.
Nobody crashed while plastered because of illegal drunken driving.
Drews said it was the first peer-reviewed study on this control.
The topic was to include drinking when I saw them walking.
The more you follow the scientific method, the better you can explain a phenomenon.
A literature review will give you a good idea of the mental state of existing studies.
Continuous car crashes is a part of the scientific method.
Imagine you are researching using a cell phone while driving.
psychologists study research questions
You create a testable cell phone while driving.
The hypothesis is related to the theory.
In this example, a testable prediction would be that using a cell phone while driving is dangerous.
A theory is an explanation of how a mental process works.
Evaluate your hypothesis is the first step in the scientific method.
In formulating a theory, you need to learn about some of the people who might be involved in the experiment.
A literature review explores a scientific simulation while other people don't talk on a cell phone.
There are a lot of resources available to assist with literature reviews.
If and how other scientists have been testing conclusions will be revealed by the results of appropriate statistical techniques.
If the data does the same thing.
If psychologists from vari don't support your hypothesis, you either discard the theory or make plans to test the revision.
The use of a cell phone is disrupting driving.
You submit your results for research.
Each hypothesis tests a different aspect of the journals and presents them at theory by targeting one of the goals of science.
refining your theory may have the goal of explaining why further predictions and testing people drive worse when using a cell phone.
Predicting future events is one of the main types of research methods that explains what is observed to test your research question.
You will learn about the research methods in the study units.
Predicting what research should be done and the hypothesis you have stated.
What method you use depends on how much control you have over manipulating and measuring factors.
In a study of cell phone use and driving ability, some of the variables would be under the researcher's control, such as whether the people in the study held the phone or used a hands-free phone.
Driving performance is one of the variables that the researcher measures.
You must use an experimental method for your research if you want to explain how cell phone use affects driving.
In an experiment, you control the variables to see if there is a cause or effect relationship between them.
If you want to test the hypothesis that research participants holding a conversation on a cell phone during a driving simulation task will perform more poorly than participants not holding a conversation, you might create an experiment where some of the participants just drive.
Some people would drive while talking on a cell phone.
If you include conditions in which people are talking while holding a cell phone and where they are talking using a hands-free cell phone, you can rule out the possibility that it is not just holding the phone.
You could observe how quickly people drive, how carefully they drive, how many crashes they have, and so on in the simulation.
The first thing to do is summarize the data.
There are two forms of data analysis described in Appendix A.
You could summarize the data by comparing the number of crashes people had when driving, while they were either holding a cell phone conversation, handheld or hands-free, or not using a cell phone.
Investigate what is happening in the relationship.
Allow in-depth watch what people do in a natural environment to gather information or a few people.
InTroducIng The World of PsYchologY would decide if the conditions were meaningful or if they happened by chance.
If your findings apply to people in general, you can consider that.
You may have seen a psychology poster session at your school.
It is possible to publish research results in a peer reviewed journal.
All the background for the research, the full methodology for how the question was studied, the complete data analyses, and a discussion of what the results mean in relation to other research on the topic are included in published articles.
You or other researchers determine what issues related to the topic need further investigation as part of the scientific method.
There are no definitive answers to any research question.
A study only shows what happened.
There was a theory at the academic buildings.
You can feel more confident in your research findings when there are posters related to it.
The study and its outcomes have been discussed in groups.
The findings are more likely to agree to either of the questions if you answered the same way.
With each new study that explores a related but slightly different aspect of the topic, more information becomes available.
The method of tel ing people about findings adds to the understanding of mental activity and behavior.
The researchers are standing by their posters and answering questions from the people who are interested.
Posters are a great way to learn more about psychology.
Ask your teacher if you can take a poster session to maximize your learning.
Explain how you could use each method to investigate a psychological topic you are interested in.
After learning the five steps of the scientific method, you are ready to look at the process in more detail.
The three main types of descriptive methods are the focus of this study unit.
The goal of your research is what determines your choice of research method.
If the goal of your research is to describe behavior, you would use one of the descriptive methods to collect data that will test your hypothesis.
The goal of the hypothesis is to describe behavior, so you would use a descriptive method to investigate it.
Descriptive methods give a snapshot of what is happening at a specific point in time.
This technique is especially useful in the early stages of research when researchers are trying to find out if a particular phenomenon exists.
You can use observational studies, self- reports, and case studies.
They involve coding observable behavior.
By coding, we mean determining which category the behavior fits into.
Researchers might record the types of foods that people eat in cafeterias, the number of times they see someone using a cell phone while driving, or the number of penguins that engage in sexual activity.
The investigator doesn't have control over the behavior being observed.
Natural environments are used for observational studies.
Some people observe behavior at regular intervals.
These intervals can be as short as seconds or minutes, or as long as years, entire lifetimes, and even across generations.
The researchers can keep track of what research participants do by using intervals.
In your research on using cell phones and driving, you might stand at a busy intersection and watch people drive.
You could record the drivers talking on their cell phones.
You would be doing an observational study for 5 minutes.
Future research can attempt to predict, control, and explain what is happening in observational research.
It is difficult to observe a situation without seeing what you want to see.
A person in a car is having a conversation but is not holding a phone.
The person might be using a hands-free cell phone or singing along with the radio.
You should not assume that a cell phone conversation is all you talk about.
It's important in the early stages of research to determine if a phenomenon exists.
Is it possible to take place without intervention.
The evolutionary psychologist lawrence sugiyama has conducted observational research on the peoples of the Amazon.
Clear rules are used to identify the behavior of interest in The World of PsYchologY.
If you observe an actual cell phone, you can record the person as using a cell phone.
Errors in observation are referred to as bias.
Observer bias can be a problem if culture favors certain ways of doing things.
Women are more free to express sadness than men are.
An observer is more likely to rate female expressions as indicating sadness when they are coding men's and women's facial expressions.
Men's expressions of sadness may be seen as reflecting annoyance by the observer.
Artificial behavior can be produced by observational studies.
People naturally behave in such a way.
The presence of an observer might change the behavior being observed.
People want to make a good impression on an observer.
Observational studies are not appropriate for some research.
In a short time, surveys can be used to gather data from a lot of people.
The research tools are easy to use.
Interviews can be used with groups that can't be studied with questionnaires or surveys.
Getting more details about the respondents' opinions, experiences, and attitudes is aided by interviews.
The answers may lead the researchers to ask questions they didn't plan on doing.
Sometimes people don't reveal their personal information because it casts them in a negative light.
Imagine having an interviewer around your parents' age ask you to describe intimate aspects of your sex life when you are in your twenties.
If you are an older student, imagine a interviewer asking the same question.
The participants are given a fixed number of options to choose from.
Survey and questionnaires can be used to gather data from a lot of people.
They are easy to administer, cost efficient, and a relatively fast way to collect data.
Interviewing people face-to-face allows the researcher to explore new lines of questioning.