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ChAPTER 4 -- Part 9: Unification and the Consolidation
There is a lot of variety in the early period of human history.
It is important to remember that hunting and gathering societies continued in many places even after the Neolithic revolution and the emergence of several early civilizations.
Several regions were dominated by nomadic herding economies.
Huge differences in the timing of key changes were generated by the separation of major regions.
There are at least three separate dates for the advent of agriculture in the Middle east, east Asia and the Americas.
The region had a different initial foundation of civilization.
The emergence of a complex culture in the Andes is almost 3000 years older than the emergence of the Sumerian civilization.
Comparison of patterns across a wide stretch of time is required for analysis of the early period.
By 600, some of the early civilizations seemed to be losing steam.
The flourishing period of olmec civilization had ended, and Harappan civilization had essentially disappeared.
The religious changes among Aryan peoples in India that would eventually lead to Hinduism were beginning to emerge in these same areas.
The zhou dynasty formed around 1100 BCe and continued until 600, when important cultural innovations took shape.
The heyday of the major early empires has passed in the Middle east and North Africa.
There are many different situations around 600 BCe.
There were two or three changes on the way.
The legacy of the early civilizations helped to create some new centers of activity.
The olmec achievements were built on by the yams.
Both egyptian and Mesopotamian heritage would be used by city states in and around Greece.
A number of areas were about to introduce new cultural patterns that would provide new regional links.
In India and Persia, important religious developments took shape in the centuries after 600.
In the Middle east, in China and other parts of Asia, and in the Mediterranean world, political, military and economic changes would be generated by growing knowledge of iron technology.
The advent of agriculture was an unfortunate development according to some historians.
is part of the classical period.
The Empire expanded as Chinese styles spread.
Large regional civilizations in China, India, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Americas formed during the classical period of world history.
The maps show these developments.
The location of the different civilizations in these areas is shown on the map on the top.
In China and the Mediterranean, a set of small states had been replaced by two giant empires.
In the classical centuries, India developed substantial empires.
There were many new and more extensive civilizations in the Americas.
The largest concentrations of population were found in the areas that were the main areas of civilization.
The influence of these civilizations extended into surrounding regions outside of their control.
There were important relationships with nomadic groups from central Asia who traded with Classical civilizations.
The main civilizations did not share borders.
The establishment of distinctive cultural and institutional patterns was a key legacy of this period.
Contacts were more direct at times.
The 6th and 5th centuries saw a lot of interaction between Persia and Greece.
This empire brought into direct contact Mediterranean, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian societies, an encounter that yielded interesting results, some of which are clearly visible in art of the period.
An Indian artist sculpted a statue of the Buddha in Greek clothes.
It can have long-term consequences.
The classical period did not have the most common feature of syncretism.
The exchanges between India and China intensified at the end of the period.
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