Her position as mother of the prince gave her great power.
She was the most trusted adviser to the sultan.
During his frequent trips to the far-flung corners of his multiethnic empire, Hurrem wrote him long letters filled with her ladies in the harem.
She shared information about affairs in Istanbul, the activities of the grand vizier, and the attitudes of the janissaries.
At a time when some people thought the sultan's absence from the capital would endanger his hold on the throne, Hurrem acted as his eyes and ears.
The sultan's contact with her native Poland sent more embassies to Istanbul than any other power.
Peace between Poland and the Ottomans was maintained through her correspondence.
Hurrem sent greetings to Sigismund II when he succeeded his father, along with two pairs of pajamas and six handkerchiefs.
She sent the shah of Persia gold-embroidered sheets and shirts that she sewed herself in order to keep peace between the Ottomans and the Safavids.
Hurrem was able to participate in his building program because of the enormous stipend Suleiman gave her.
In Jerusalem, she founded aHospice for fifty-five pilgrims that included a soup kitchen that fed four hundred pilgrims a day.
In Istanbul Suleiman built and Hurrem endowed a mosque and a bath for women near the Women's Market.
A courtly romance illustration depicts several women in a garden listening to a musician while holding a beverage in their hands.
Being a slave of the imperial household was attached to great social pres tige, as well as the opportunity to acquire power and wealth.
It was a practice for Suleiman to marry his daughters to the highest ranking slave- officials.
The loyalty of the Qizilbash was secured by the passing of all of Persia and other re shahs.
The Qizilbash supplied him with troops.
Sufi tribesmen Second, the Safavid state utilized the skills of urban bureaucrats and made them who were loyal to and supportive of the early Safavid state.
The compulsory religion of the empire was the Shi'a faith.
The Shi'a believed that the leadership of Muslims should be for the Prophet Muhammad's descendants.
Isma'il claimed to be descended from a line of 12 leaders, beginning with Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law.
The power of the kingdom of Persia in the late 16th century was dependent on its strong military force, Shi'a Muslim faith, and rich trade in rugs and pottery.
Tabriz, Qum, and Shiraz are some of the great rug-weaving centers on the map.
Iran is the only country that Sunnis trust to interpret the Qur'an Muslim state in which Shi'ism is the official religion.
He used the Ottoman practice of building an army of slaves, who could serve as a counterbalance to the Qizilbash, who had come to be considered a threat.
He alliances with European powers against the Ottomans and Portuguese and used gunpowder weapons.
Shah Abbas fought against the Ottomans in Mesopotamia.
After Shah Abbas, the power of the safavid was lost due to civil war.
The Empire of India was the largest, wealthiest, and most populous Muslim empire in India.
Extending over a million square miles.
The only Dynasty that could compare was the Ming Dynasty in China.
In 1504 a Turkish ruler named Babur established a kingdom in Afghanistan.
An adventurer who claimed descent from Timur and Chinggis Khan moved southward in search of resources to restore his fortunes.
The sultan of Delhi was defeated at Panipat in 1526 by a force that was smal but had firearms.
The capture of Agra and Delhi paved the way for further conquests in northern India.
Many of his soldiers wanted to return north with their spoils, but he decided to stay in India.
The reign of Akbar may be the greatest in the history of India.
Akbar pursued expansionist policies when he was a boy.
Most of the sub continent north of the Godavari River was encompassed by the Mughal state under his leadership.
The states of northern India were forced into a centralized political system by the Mughal emperor.
The official language of the Mughal Empire was Persian.
Akbar created an administrative bureaucracy centered on finance and revenue, the army and intelligence, the judiciary and religious patronage, and the imperial household, whose jurisdiction included roads, bridges, and infrastructure throughout the empire.
In the provinces, imperial governors, appointed by and responsible solely to the emperor, presided over administrative branches like those of the central government.
The life of village communities was not interfered with by the government.
Akbar used the services of royal princes, nobles, and warrior-aristocrats, unlike the Ottoman sultans and shahs who used slaves from non- Muslim lands for military and administrative positions.
Akbar recruited Persians and Hindus to reduce their influence.