The Qur'an is an example of a religious text that is open to different interpretations.
Modern scholars agree that the Islamic sacred book intended women to be the spiritual and sexual equals of men and gave them considerable economic rights.
The early Umayyad period had active roles for women in the religious, economic, and political life of the community.
The property they owned was theirs.
They traveled widely and had freedom of movement.
The Prophet allowed women to go to the mosques, but the appropriate thing now is to prevent them from doing so.
If a man has several wives, he should deal with them fairly and not favor one over the other, for such was the practice of the Messenger.
It is a duty on him to make up for cheating on a woman.
Allow a man to speak and kiss.
One shouldn't be overjoyed with the birth of a male child, for he doesn't know which of the two blessings he has, and he shouldn't be overly depressed over the birth of a female child, for he doesn't know which of the two blessings he has.
A man who has a son wishes he didn't have him or that he was a girl.
The girls give more tranquility anddivine remuneration.
Divorce is permissible, but it is the most detestable of all permissible things.
The author didn't think it was another situation.
They were with men in public religious rituals.
As Islamic society changed, the precepts of the Qur'an were interpreted in more patriarchal ways, and the Islamic ideal of women and men having equal value to the community did not last.
The status of women declined during the Abbasid period.
The practices of the Byzan tine and Persian lands that had been conquered were not allowed to continue.
The supply of slave women increased.
Some scholars theorize that as wealth replaced ancestry as the criterion of social status, men more and more viewed women as possessions.
Men were seen as more dominant in their marriages.
The Qur'an states that men are in charge of women because Allah made the one to excel the other and they spent their property for the support of women.
A thirteenth-century commentator on the same Qur'anic passage argues that women are incapable of being involved in public politics, giving evidence in the law courts, or being involved in religious activities.
Interpreters further categorized the ways in which men were superior to women after this view was accepted.
The Sunni aphorism "There shall be no monkery in Islam" captures the importance of marriage in Muslim culture and the belief that a sexual frustrated person is not welcome in the community.
The celibate had no roles for Islam.
Every man and woman in the Muslim world is expected to marry unless they can't.
Marriage is seen as a safeguard of virtue, essential to the stability of the family and society.
In Muslim society families, not the prospective bride and groom, identified suitable marriage partners and finalized the contract, like in medieval Europe and traditional India and China.
mar riages were arranged shortly after the girl's menstrual period began because it was essential that the bride be a virgin.
The husbands were older than ten to fifteen years.
A long period of fertility was ensured by youthful marriages.
A wife's responsibilities were dependent on her husband's wealth.
In rural life, a farmer's wife helped in the fields, ground the corn, carried water, and prepared food.
Shopkeepers' wives helped in business.
In an upper-class household, the lady supervised servants, looked after al do mestic arrangements, and did whatever was needed for her husband's comfort.
The children were the wife's special domain.
A mother had authority over her children.
As in Chinese culture, the prestige of the young wife depended on the production of children as quickly as possible.
A wife's failure to have children was one of the main reasons for a man to take a second wife.
Like the Jewish tradition, Muslim law allows divorce.
Divorce is not encouraged.
The Prophet said that God hates divorce the most.
Islam has a healthy acceptance of sexual pleasure for both males and females.
The Qur'an allows a man to have four wives if they are treated justly.
Wealthy men were the only ones who could take several wives.
The majority of Muslim men were monogamous because they had enough to support one wife.