The Industrial Revolu Hemisphere nations sought to emulate the rapid economic progress of the Western Hemisphere.
Railroad development was sponsored by the governments of Canada and Argentina.
Railroads in Latin American nations were important to political and cultural integration, even though they were committed to this technology later than the United States.
The first concession for railroad construction was granted by Mexico in 1836.
Railroad construction was promoted by the presidency of Porfirio Diaz, who was in office from 1884-1911.
Mexico had 12,000 miles of track by the time revolutionaries forced him from office.
Railroads were important to Mexican economic growth, but there was a downside.
The dependence on foreign capital led to political protests and economic nationalism.
Native peoples still controlled large areas of rural Mexico because of railroad development.
Railroads made their lands more valuable, and as a result, powerful landed families used their political influence to strip this land from indigenous farmers and use it to produce export crops.
The number of rural uprisings increased as Amerindian villagers lost their traditional lands.
The Western Hemisphere saw technological innovations and economic expansion in the 19th century.
Spain's colonies achieved independence by 1824.
In the American and French Revolutions, rising nationalism and the ideal of political freedom promoted these changes.
Mexico and other nations in the hemisphere faced foreign interventions and threats to sovereignty despite their independence.
The new nations of the Western Hemisphere faced difficult questions.
The new nations tried to promote economic growth while trying to resolve political questions.
They opened new areas to settlement, imported new technologies, and promoted immigration.
The legacy of colonial economic development, with its emphasis on agricultural and mining exports, made it hard to promote industrialization, just as the legacy of class and racial division made it hard to realize political ideals.
The power of Spain and Portugal waned relative to their British and French rivals as the 18th century drew to a close.
Both Iberian empires strengthened their military forces in the 18th century.
The same economic and political forces that undermined British rule in its colonies were present in Spanish America and Brazil.
The colonies were driven toward independence by events in Europe.
Napoleon's decision to invade Portugal and Spain, not revolutionary ideas, created a crisis of legitimacy that undermined the authority of colonial officials and sparked the Latin America's struggle for independence.
The Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil as the French army neared Lisbon.
John VI had a court there.
Napoleon placed his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the throne after King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated.
To administer the areas they controlled.
The election of colonial deputies to help write a constitution was invited by the junta.
A vocal minority, including some members of the elite, objected to the fact that most residents of colonial Spanish America preferred to obey the Junta Central.
The dissenters argued that they were subjects of the king.
They wanted to control their own affairs until Ferdinand regained the throne.
Spanish loyalists provoked armed uprisings.
In the late 18th century, popular movements overthrew Spanish colonial officials in Venezuela, Mexico, and Alto Peru.
Spanish officials punished the leaders in each case.
The public opinion in the colonies was further divided by this harsh oppression.
The Spanish colonial authorities were facing a new round of revolutions.
The capital city of modern Venezuela was declared independence in 1811.
They wanted to eliminate Spaniards from the upper levels of government and the church.
Thousands of free blacks and slaves were rallied by Spanish loyalists to defend the Spanish against the indepen Empire.
The revolutionary movement placed overwhelm dence in South America.
He was a charismatic personality.
Despite being defeated many times, Bolivar was able to adapt his objectives and policies to attract new allies and build coalitions.
In 1813, he claimed that any Spaniard who did not use harsh methods would be defeated.
As a traitor to the nation, he will be shot by a firing squad if he works against tyranny in the Americas.
Military advantage shifted back and forth between the patriots and loyalists after a military revolt in Spain in 1820 weakened Spanish resolve.
The English veterans, hardened by combat, improved the battlefield performance of Bolivar's army, while the revolt in Spain in 1820 forced Ferdinand VII to accept a constitution that limited the powers of both the monarch and the church.
The reforms were viewed unacceptably liberal by the church and Simon arch.
The king's supporters were divided.
The last Spanish armies were defeated in 1824 by the army of the Latin American indepen nial Alto Peru.
The dence movement was started by Bolivar and his supporters.
The creation of Gran Colombia and the unification of Peru and Bolivia were the first steps, but they failed by 1830.
The news of French victories in Spain led to the creation of a junta that overthrew the viceroy in 1810.
The junta claimed to be loyal to the imprisoned king.
The United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata became independent after Ferdinand regained the Spanish throne in 1814.
Spanish loyalists in the Americas and a movement in South America defeated the ambitions of the patricians to retain control over the territory of the Vice royalty of Rio de la Plata.
Even within the territory of Argentina, the government was unable to control regional rivalries and political differences.
The region descended into political chaos as a result.
The interior of Argentina was lost to a weak succession of juntas, collective presidencies, and dictators.
San Martin's most effective troops were former slaves who gained their freedom by joining the army.
San Martin failed to win a clear victory in Peru after gaining victory in Chile.
San Martin was unable to make progress and surrendered control of his forces to Simon Bolivar.
Mexico was the most populous colony in Spain.
The colony's capital, Mexico City, was larger than any city in Spain and its silver mines were the richest in the world.
Mexico had the largest population of Spanish immigrants.
The viceroy of Mexico City was overthrown by the conservatives because he was too sympathetic to the creoles.
The new reality is that with the king removed from his throne by the French, colonial authority now rested on brute force.
The first stage of the revolution against Spain took place in central Mexico, where ranchers and farmers forced Amerindian communities from their traditional agricultural lands.
Crop failures and epidemics afflicted the region's rural poor, while miners and the urban poor faced higher food prices and rising unemployment.
He urged the crowd to rise up against the oppression of Spanish officials after he was captured.
In 1811, tens were cut.
The Spanish and Portuguese Empires were overthrown by the patriot forces.
Many of the new nations following independence were challenged by conflicts and foreign interventions.
The first stage of Mexico's revolution for independence was led by Padre Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.
He was one of Mexico's most important political martyrs.
Spanish forces captured and executed Hidalgo after the military tide turned.
In 1813, Morelos convened a congress that declared independence and drafted a constitution after creating a formidable fighting force.
Loyalist forces defeated and executed Morelos in 1816.
In 1823, the army overthrew Iturbide and Mexico became a republic.
When Iturbide returned to Mexico from exile in 1824, he was captured and executed by a firing squad.
The Portuguese royal family's arrival in Brazil in 1808 helped maintain the loyalty of the colonial elite.
The Portuguese government wanted King John VI to return to Portugal after Napoleon's defeat.
The king was forced to return to Portugal in 1821 to protect his throne after a liberal revolt in Portugal.
Pedro was left in Brazil by his father.
The Spanish colonies along Brazil's borders experienced ten years of civil war and gained independence.
Some Brazilians began to reexamine their relationship with Portugal due to the struggles.
Many Brazilians resented their homeland's economic subordination to Portugal, while the arrogance of Portuguese soldiers and bureaucrats led others to talk openly of independence.
Pedro declared Brazilian independence in 1822 after aligning himself with the rising tide of sentiment.
Brazil was launched on a political trajectory by Pedro's decision.
Brazil gained independence as a constitutional monarchy with Pedro I, son of the king of Portugal, becoming emperor.
Pedro I believed in both monarchy and liberal principles.
Pedro made enemies by protecting the Portuguese who remained in Brazil from arrest, even though the 1824 constitution provided for an elected assembly and rights to the political opposition.
Even though the slave-owning class dominated Brazil, Pedro I opposed slavery.
In 1823 he published an article that said slavery was a cancer eating away at Brazil.
The French invasion of Portugal and Spain created a political problem as military losses and costs rose and the public grew impatient.
The countries gained independence after being confronted by street demonstra.
The son of the Portuguese king, Pedro II assumed full control of Brazil after nine years and ruled it until it became a monarchy.
Establishing stable political institutions was difficult for the newly independent nations of the Western Hemisphere.
All the new nations in the hemisphere sought to establish constitutions and elected assembly.
The widespread support for constitutional order and for representative government failed to prevent bitter factional conflict, regionalism, and the threats posed by charismatic political leaders and military uprisings.
In response to the rule of colonial authorities in the United States and Latin America, revolutionary leaders in the United States and Latin America advocated constitutionalism.
The best protection for individual rights and liberties was offered by the description of political powers in written constitutions.
Many new constitutions proved to be impractical.
George Washington helped write a new constitution after he and other leaders became dissatisfied with the first one.
In Latin America, few constitutions survived the rough and tumble of national politics.
Between 1811 and 1833, Venezuela and Chile rejected a total of nine constitutions.
Differences in colonial political experience influenced political development in the Americas.
The development of English constitutional law and the development of colonial charters led to the creation of the United States' new constitution.
By the time of independence, the citizens of the British colonies had grown accustomed to elections and political parties.
Brazil and Spanish America did not have a lot of experience with elections.
In regions that remained colonies, the desire for self-rule led to political reform.
Each of the colonies and territories in British Canada had their own government.
Political life in each colony was dominated by a provincial governor and advisory council from the local elite.
We were attracted by the sound of military music, contemplating their persons, you saw them with a physical, and found it proceeded from a regiment drawn up in one of organization resembling beings of a grade below the rank of the streets.
They attended to a man after their colonel died.
Some of these beings were yoked to drays to form a procession to celebrate their obsequies.
They were all carrying heavy burdens.
The majority of those chained were negroes.
Their equipment was excellent; they wore dark jackets, white lowed each other in ranks, with heavy weights on their heads, and black leather caps and belts.
The band moved along.
Some were eating young sugar-canes, like agreeable music, and the men beasts of burden eating green provender, and went through some evolutions with regularity and dexterity.
They were only a militia unit, yet they were as well appointed as dogs, coiled up like dogs, and seemed to expect or be disciplined as one of the lines.
The black popu and conformation were so un-human that they not only seemed, but were, far below the inferior, the first step in that gradation.
They were seen as a human being of any colour.
The negro men and women appeared to be carrying a variety of articles for sale, and some of them looked down on the fettered and burdened wretches.
Britain established a Negotiated union of the self-rule in each of the Canadian provinces.
Regional political leaders realized that economic development needed a government with a national character.
Negotiating governments of Ontario, Canadian leaders and the British crown led to a union of Canadian provinces.
To the south the path to effective constitutional government was more difficult.
The elected legislatures and municipal govern ning of the Canadian nation were not allowed by Spain or Portugal.
A few of these people were dependent on the state in which he was placed, and the estima still in a state of bondage, and brought a certain sum every time they were held.
As a despised slave, he was lower in the evening to his owners.
I went to the same place.
The funeral service was chanted by a choir of priests, one of whom was a negro, a large comely man, whose jet black visage formed a strong and striking contrast to his white vestments.
I didn't observe his brethren's sense of solemnity, but he seemed to perform his part with decorum.
It was difficult for Latin American nations to define the role of the Catholic Church after independence.
The Catholic Church ruled all levels of education and intellectual life in the colonial period.
The power of education was reduced by making it secular and permitting other religions.
The church financed conservative movements.
Political life in the 19th century was dominated by disagreements between liberals who wanted the separation of church and state and conservatives who supported the church.
Canada established effective political and economic control over its western territories by 1873, even though independence was not yet achieved.
The creation of constitutional governments in Latin America was hampered by limiting the power of the military.
The wars for independence elevated the prestige of military leaders, and when the wars were over, military commanders rarely subordinates themselves to civilian authorities.
Many citizens felt that dictatorship was a better protection for their lives and property because of the chaotic workings of democracy.
The cal leaders who rely on wars for independence gained mass followings in both the United States and Latin America, and some used them to gain political power.
George Wash's charisma and ability to dominate early republican politics in the United States anticipated the later to mobilize and direct the political ascendancy of revolutionary heroes such as Iturbide in Mexico.
Military reputation gave the foundation for personal political authority.
Washington's willingness to give up power made him different from the other leaders.
One of the most successful generals of the independence wars was Getulio Vargas of Paez.
Like most of his followers, Paez was uneducated and poor, but his physical strength, courage, and guile made him a natural guerrilla leader.
After defeating the Spanish, he pursued his dream of forming a union of the United States with other colonies.
He underestimated the strength of nationalists because of the independence wars.
The stances were resisted by Paez and other leaders.
He was a popular surrender of their power to the Gran Colombian government.
He had a dictator for eighteen years.
Paez was popular with the people despite implementing an economic program that was favorable to his political career as a judge.
Paez took general, congressman, care to present himself as a common man even as his personal wealth grew.
The first U.S. president was Andrew Jackson.
A being denied the presidency self-made man who eventually acquired substantial property and owned over a hundred slaves in 1824 in a controversial Jackson was very popular among frontier residents, urban workers, and small farmers.
Indi was reelected in 1832 despite being notorious for his personal life and dueling.
Jackson was impatient with civilian authorities during his military career.
He was elevated to the pin of the cavalry force because of his victories over the Creek and Seminole peoples.
After his victory at the Battle of New Orleans, he became a successful general in the war and was able to seize Florida from the Spanish in 1819.
He received a lot of political support in 1824.
The president failed to win a majority of electoral votes.
John Quincy Adams was chosen as president by the House of Representatives.
Jackson was in office when he declared Venezuela's limits on his authority, increasing presidential power at the expense of Congress and the Supreme Court.
Jackson was able to dominate national politics by combining the two countries.
Latin America's weaker constitutional tradition, more limited protection of property rights, lower literacy levels, and less-developed communications systems allowed for the ambitions of popular politicians.
Latin America's personalist leaders often ignored constitutional constraints on their authority, and election results rarely determined access to presidential power.
Every Latin American nation experienced periods of dictatorship by 1900.
The national governments were weaker after independence than the colonial governments.
Slave trade and tariffs were among the issues that led to regional elites trying to break away.
Some of the hemisphere's newly independent nations did not survive the struggles.
Efforts to forge large multistate federations failed in Spanish America after independence.