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14.3 Energetics of Solution Formation -- Part 1
The amount of energy required to separate the solute from its ion is less than when the ion is hydrated.
There are sulfates with negative enthalpies of solution.
The amount of energy required to separate the solute from its ion is greater than the amount of energy given off when the ion is hydrated.
Ammonium nitrate and silver nitrate are sulfates that form solutions with positive enthalpies of solution.
The amount of energy required to separate the solute from its ion is roughly the same as the amount of energy given off when the ion is hydrated.
There are sulfates with enthalpies of solution near zero.
The solution for cesium fluoride has an enthalpy of -38 kJ/mol.
It is added to the water.
Dynamic equilibrium occurs when the rate of dissolution equals the rate but the solution becomes more concentrated.
Solid sodium chloride begins to recrystallize when the dissolved sodium chloride is dissolved.
The rate of dissolution is much higher than the rate of recrystallization initially.
It is possible that one containing more than the equilibrium amount of solute may form.
In a classroom demonstration, a tiny piece of solid sodium acetate is added to a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate.
The precipitation of the solute happens when this happens.
The temperature of the water can have a big effect on the solubility of things in it.
37 g KNO3 per 100 g of water is the room temperature.
As it comes out of the solution, KCl tals.
After a few days, the sugar covered the string.
Gases are dissolved in water.
Club soda is a solution temperature.
Our blood contains dissolved nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, which are important for fish and other aquatic animals.
The tap water contains dissolved gases.
The temperature and pressure of a liquid affect the solubility of a gas in it.
By heating tap water on a stove, you can see the effect of temperature on the gas in the water.
The water has small bubbles in it.
The dissolved air coming out of solution is called the bubbles.
Rock candy is formed by the recrystallization of sugar because of the inverse relationship between gas solubility and temperature.
There is nitrogen gas in the solution.
Some bromides leave solution.
The gas is less stable at room temperature.
The reason that fish don't bite in a warm lake is due to the decreasing solubility of gases.
The fish don't strike as aggressively at the lure or bait when oxygen levels are low.
Pressure plays a role in the solubility of gases.
The higher the pressure of a gas, the more gas is in the liquid.
A sealed can of soda pop has a high pressure of carbon dioxide within it.
The warm solution has less carbon dioxide in it than the cold solution.
The reduced pressure of carbon dioxide over the liquid results in the bubbling that occurs when a can in solution of soda is opened.
The carbon dioxide bubbles out of solution at lower pressure.
The pressure of equilibrium is increased.
The equilibrium is back to normal.
The first cylinder shows an equilibrium between the rate of carbon dioxide entering and the rate of carbon dioxide leaving the solution.
Imagine decreasing the volume as we did in the second cylinder.
M14_TRO4371_05_SE_C14_578-629v 3.0.2.indd 592 is entering the solution to rise.
Table 14.4 contains the Henry's law constants.
The other substances in the table are not polar.
Ammonia has the highest mass in the table.
The other substances in the table are polar.
The Henry's law constant is listed in Table 14.4.
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