The military problem of defending against the nomadic Khitans's Liao Dynasty to the north was not solved by Curbing the generals' power.
The Song agreed to make huge nual payments of gold and silk to the Khitans in order to prevent them from invading the Liao.
The Song rulers had a large army.
Half the government's revenues were consumed by military expenses by the middle of the eleventh century.
Song had an industrial base that allowed them to make huge quantities of swords, armor, and arrowheads, but they had difficulty maintaining enough horses and well-trained horsemen.
The military situation deteriorated rapidly when the Khitan state was destroyed by the Jurchens.
The Jurchens quickly realized how easy it would be to defeat the Song.
The emperor was captured in 1126 and died eight years later in captivity.
The prince established a Song court in the south after one of his sons escaped capture.
The social, cultural, and intellectual life in the former Song terri tories was vibrant until the Song fell to the Mongols in 1279.
The Song Empire did not extend as far as the Tang, and faced powerful rivals to the north.
KoryoV Korea had regular contact with Song China, but Japan was no longer involved with the mainland by the late Heian period.
The borders of Korea and Japan were not changed by 1200 military families.
The northern third of the Song Empire was seized by the Jin Dynasty, which had overthrown the Liao Dynasty on the mainland.
The Southern Song period is when the Song relocated its capital to the south.
Both riods were included in Chinese history, but this elite was better educated and broader.
The officials gained office by passing their habits.
Civil service depended more on study habits than on connections when it came to genealogy.
The number of scholars who studied for the exami ing each competition went from less than 30,000 early in the eleventh century to more than one million by the end of the century.
Men had to memorize the classics and master specific forms of selecting officials for the written exams.
Most of the people who spent years preparing for the exams never became officials because of the fierce competition.
The trend toward a better educated elite should be given some credit for the invention of printing.
The art of carving words and pictures into wooden blocks was developed by Tang craftsmen.
The blocks held a page of text and illustrations.
In China and Europe, the introduction of printing dra matically lowered the price of books, which aided the spread of literacy.
The availability of cheaper books made it possible for scholars to build their own libraries.
Buddhist texts were also avidly consumed.
Song writers looked to Han and Tang for inspiration.
The first European encyclopedia was published at least five centuries before the encyclopedia first appeared in the Song period.
The life of an educated man is more than just studying for civil service exams.
Practice of the arts such as poetry writing, calligraphy, and painting, were taken by many.
The engagement of the elite with the arts led to extraordinary achievement in cal igraphy and painting.
A large share of the social life of upper-class men was centered on these re fined pastimes, as they gathered to compose or criticize poetry, to view each other's art trea sures, and to patronize young talents.
Some extraordinary men were produced by the new scholar-official elite and were able to hold high court offices.
He spared time in his career to write love songs.
While active in opposition politics, Shi wrote more than twenty-seven hundred poems and eight hundred letters.
He was a painter, cal igrapher, and theorist of the arts.
An eighty-foot-tal mechanical clock was constructed by Su Song.
In Re naissance Europe a couple of centuries later, gifted men made advances in a wide range of fields.
The Confucian responsibility to aid the ruler in the governing of the country was accepted by these highly educated men.
They were embroiled in unpleasant factional politics due to this commitment.
A series of reforms was proposed by the chancellor in 1069 to raise revenues and help small farmers.
Many scholars and officials thought that Wang's policies would do more harm than good.
Critics were assigned offices far from the capital.
They retaliated against those who pushed them out when they returned to power.
Issues in ethics and metaphysics were debated by scholars.
Buddhism was more important than Confucianism.
Confucian teachers began to claim that the teachings of the Confucians contained all the wisdom one needed and that a true Confucian would reject Buddhist teachings.
During the eleventh century, Confucian teachers urged students to set their sights on the higher goals of attaining wisdom than on exam success.
He wrote, compiled, or edited almost a hundred books while in office, in order to attain the wisdom of the sages, not exam success.