33 -- Part 10: The Global South: Latin America and Africa 1945 to the Present
In January of 2011, 98 percent of the electorate in southern Sudan voted to break away from Sudan and form a new country.
South Sudan became a country on July 9, 2011.
South Sudan has a major revenue source, as it has around 80 percent of Sudan's oil wells.
The majority of the infrastructure for oil is in the north.
Sudan and South Sudan will share oil revenues according to the terms of the peace agreement.
The violence that took place in the 1990s is still very much alive and well in the countries that were affected.
More than half of the country's 71 million people have been affected by the SecondCongo War, which began in 1998 and involved nine African nations and twenty-five armed groups.
There has been no end to the war in the eastern part of the country since the peace accords were signed.
The world's deadliest conflict since World War II has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives in the last four years.
Rape and sexual vio lence have become weapons in this war.
Observers place the number of women and young girls who have been raped by soldiers from both sides of the conflict in the tens of thousands.
While the war is complex and the motives of many countries are varied, possession of the abundant natural resources of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is sought by the many countries involved.
The total mineral value of the country is estimated to be $24 trillion, making it the richest in the world in terms of raw minerals and other natural resources.
The country that bends around the Horn of Africa has been without a central government since 1991.
International shipping has been disrupted by pirates off the Horn of Africa.
There were riots after Mwai Kibaki was re-elected.
In the first week after the election, over 250 deaths occurred.
Thousands of people were forced to flee their homes.
Kofi Annan was the former UN Sec retary General.
The National Ac cord and Reconciliation Act 2008 was promoted.
The election violence of 2007, and the global economic downturn of 2009, hurt tourism in the country.
In 2010 the economy picked up again, with significant increases in the tourism, telecommunications, transport, and agricultural export industries.
Southern Africa is home to many of the most stable democratic countries.
The transition from colonialism to democracy has taken place in several countries.
Good progress has been made by Nigeria, Nigeria, and other countries.
Much of the political progress is related to the economy.
A human rights nightmare has been created by 1924.
More stable countries have seen their economies grow.
How have writers depicted Third World solidarity during and after the struggle for political emancipation, and some argued that genuine independence and freedom from outside control required a total break with the former powers.
According to Fanon, a French-trained black Psychiatrist from the Caribbean island of Martinique, decolonization is a violent and total consuming process whereby one "species" of men, the colonizers, is completely replaced by an absolutely different species -- the wretched of the earth.
Some writers looked beyond the industrialized powers when countries gained independence.
They were both anti-imperialist and also ac tivists and cultural nationalists who celebrated the rich histories and cultures of their peoples.
Many did not hesitate to criticize their own leaders.
These themes were rendered with acute insight and vivid specificity in his short, moving novels.
He wanted to restore his people's self-confidence.
The writer in a new nation had a duty to help his or her people regain their dignity and self-respect by showing them the depth and beauty of their own culture.
The white man is very smart.
We owed him to stay because we were amused at his foolishness.
The rulers of many developing nations in the 1960s and 1970s seemed corrupted by Western luxury and estranged from the rural mass, which was reflected in the post independence disillusionment of many writers and intellectuals.
The struggle for democratic government in Nigeria was fought by Achebe.
What light do contemporary writers shed on Indian parents, also castigated governments in the developing world on the ongoing struggle for corruption, ineptitude, and self-deception.
Many Latin America countries broke away from their neocolonial ties in the last half of the 20th century.
They wanted to go along with the political independence they had gained in the early 1800s.
During the scramble for Africa in the late 1800s, Nationalist leaders in sub-Saharan Africa were busy gathering the people behind them to push for political independence from the colonial powers that had occupied their lands.
The leaders of both continents had to make a decision on whether to side with the Soviets or the Americans in the Cold War.
When the Cold War ended, their citizens demanded more civil and human rights, democracy, and an end to corruption and rule from above.
In the last chapter, we will see that the countries of Africa and Latin America played important roles in the United Nations, setting agendas that were of the most concern to them: poverty, il iteracy, fair trade, globalization.
Two-thirds of the world's citizens are from these countries and Asia.
The global changes, developments, and problems that directly affect these people every day are discussed in Chapter 34.