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20 -- Part 4: The Islamic World Powers
The Mughal Empire was extended by Akbar's descendants.
Jahangir consolidated Mughal rule in Bengal.
Shah Jahan launched fresh territorial expansion.
Shah Jahan was faced with revolts by the Muslims in Ahmadnagar and the resistance of the newly arrived Portuguese in Bengal and he strengthened his northwestern frontier.
Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb con fined him for years after he deposed him and refused to wait for his father to die.
Aurangzeb ruled more of India than any previous Mughal emperor, as well as being a skillful general and a clever diplomat, because he extended the realm deeper into south India.
The beginning of the empire's decline was marked by his reign.
Major uprisings were caused by the common characteristics of the Islamic empires of the early modern to Mughal rule.
The cultural Al three Islamic empires were characterized by an extraordinary artistic and intel ectual flowering.
The Turks have had a common Persian influence on their culture since the tenth century.
The exchange was aided by common languages.
Arabic was a lingua franca of the entire region because of its importance in Islam, and Persian was used as the administrative language by the Mu ghals in India.
Both Persian and Arabic were literary languages in Ottoman lands, but Turkish became thelingua of the realm.
carpet making was one of the arts shared by the three empires.
Carpets and weaving techniques show both cultural integration and local distinctiveness.
As they moved, the Turkic Mi grants kept their weaving traditions but also adopted new ones.
More than twenty-five thousand weavers were employed in the capital of Isfahan.
Women and children were often employed as weavers because of their smaller hands.
Miniature painting was an art that spread from Persia to both Ottoman and Mughal lands.
The tradition was enriched by the many Chinese artists who came to Persia.
The first carpet weavers of ancient times were the Persians.
There are only three signed and dated carpets from the time when Persian carpet making was at its peak.
It was hand-knotted and hand-dyed and was commissioned with a traditional medallion design.
There are depictions of flowers, birds, and even dragons in both book illustrations and carpets.
Artists who produced paintings and books in the Indo-Persian style were supported by Akbar.
Throughout the Muslim world, books were considered to be precious objects.
They prized time, talent, and expensive materials because they reflected wealth, learning, and power.
Akbar had twenty-four thousand books when he died.
Capital cities and imperial palaces were built by strong rulers.
At a time when Elizabeth I of England could expect $150,000 and Francis I of France could expect $1 mil ion, Suleiman had a lifestyle no European monarch could begin to match.
He used his wealth to build palaces, mosques, schools, and libraries in Istanbul, and the city reached a million inhabitants.
The reconstruction of the water systems of the great pilgrimage sites at Mecca and Jerusalem benefited his subjects.
Both Persia and Mughal India had the same ambitions.
The jewel of the Safavid Empire was made by Shah Abbas.
He put a polo ground in the center and surrounded it with palaces, mosques, and bazaars.
Besides splendid rugs, stalls displayed pottery and fine china, metalwork of high quality, and silks and velvets of stunning weave and design.
A city of perhaps 750,000 people, Isfahan had a vast imperial palace, as well as schools, mosques, and public baths.
Private houses had their own garden courts, while public gardens, pools, and parks adorned the wide streets.
Akbar was a great builder.
The birth of a long-awaited son, Jahangir, in spired Akbar to build a new city to symbolize the regime's Islamic founda tions.
The Muslim tradition of domes, arches, and spacious courts were combined with the Hindu tradition of flat stone beams, ornate decoration, and solidity.
The city was completed in 1578 and included an imperial palace, a mosque, lavish gardens, and thousands of houses for ordinary people.
The city was abandoned because of its bad water supply.
Shah Jahan had the most sophisticated interest in architecture.
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