ChAPTER 12 -- Part 3: Abbasid Decline and the Spread of
The Seljuks faced a different challenge after seizing power in the Christian Crusades.
Knights from western Europe were determined to capture portions of the Islamic world that made up the Holy Land of biblical times.
The first of the Crusader assaults, between 1096 and 1099, was the most successful because of the Muslim politi cal divisions.
The Holy Land was divided into Christian kingdoms.
The main objective of the Crusade, Jerusalem, was taken by the Christian Knights and the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants were massacred.
The military held onto their hold on the eastern Mediterranean region.
The Muslim princes' disregard for the Christians was seen as a sign of weakness by the western Christians, who continued to argue despite the invaders' aggression.
Saladin's death in 1123 gave the remaining Chris other purposes such as commercial wars and the eradication of heresy.
Acre was the last of the kingdoms to fall.
The Muslim people had to fight them off.
The Muslim kingdoms outposts for Islam and the trade between western Europe and the Islamic world reconquered most of the Crusader in the 12th century.
One sign of the Europeans' interest in the superior scientific learning of Muslim peoples is Richard the Lionheart's preference for Muslim over Christian physicians.
Muslims and Jews in Spain, Sicily, Egypt, and the Middle East helped the Europeans recover much of the Greek learning that had been lost to northern Europe during the waves of nomadic invasions after the fall of Rome.
The concept of dynasties of nomadic conquerors having classes in Renaissance and early modern paintings was developed by the Oriental rugs and tapestries that adorned the homes of the European upper rian.
The cloth was produced and sold in Muslim cities.
The taste for group feeling has been lost due to the fact that they are an Islamic civilization that was dominated by force.
Among them, luxury reaches its peak.
He was one of the greatest historians because he was given a life of prosperity and ease.
They become dependent on the dynasty and are like women and the Islamic world, he served as a political advisor at several children who need to be defended.
The support of feeling is gone.
People forget to protect and a royal patron wrote a universal history that began defend themselves and to press their claims.
The causes of the people were one of the subjects he treated.
The dynasties are more timid than women.
Abbasids and earlier Muslim regimes were able to inform his attempts to not repel him because he knew well in his native north Africa.
The ruler needs other brave people for his support.
He has many clients and followers.
They help find persistent patterns in the political history of the dynasty until God allows it to be destroyed.
The following passages are from one of the most well-known.
The duration of a dynasty's life does not affect it.
When senility becomes preponderant, it extends beyond three generations.
If there should be one, the first generation of a dynasty will retain the desert qualities, desert toughness, and desert sav, but there will be no claim for power.
They are brave and rapacious if the time is up.
The dynasty cannot be postponed for a single hour because the strength of group feeling cannot be accelerated.
People submit to them.
The group feeling is broken.
People are used to lowliness.
The elite and popular cultures of western Europe were affected by Muslim influences.
Persian and Arabic words, chess, chivalric ideals and troubadour ballads, as well as foods such as dates, coffee, and yogurt were included.
The songs of the troubadours can be traced back to contacts made in the Holy Land.
Most of them were part of a process of exchange that lasted over centuries.
Muslim peoples in this era did not show much interest in the learning or institutions of the West.
The Italian merchant communities, which remained after the political and military power of the crusaders had been extinguished in the Middle East, contributed more to these ongoing interchanges than all the Christian knights.
Discuss the major advances in the arts and sciences that occurred in the Islamic world during the Abbasid period.
Although town life became more dangerous, the rapid growth and increasing prosperity that char entered into a phase of renewed acterized the first centuries of Muslim expansion continued until late in the Abbasid era.
Muslim, Jewish, and Christian entrepreneurs were great for supplying the cities of the empire with essentials such as cotton and woolen textiles for clothing, and luxury items such as precious gems and sugar cane.
The long-distance trade between the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe and between coastal India and southeast Asia flourished during the Abbasid era.