ChAPTER 14 -- Part 7: Civilization in Eastern Europe:
Russian literature was kept under supervision.
The north-south commerce of the Kievan period never returned after trade stopped in western Russia.
Russian Christianity and a native Russian aristocratic class were not destroyed by loose Tatar supervision.
Russian affairs were left alone by the Tatar overlords as long as tribute was paid.
When Tatar control was finally overthrown in the second half of the 15th century, a Russian cultural and political tradition could come back to life, serving as a partial basis for the further development of Russian society.
Russian leaders remember the glories of Byzantium.
It was logical to claim that the mantle of east European leadership had fallen on Russia as it was beginning to assert its independence from the Tatars.
This sense of an eastern Christian mission, inspiring a Russian resurgence, was just one result of this complicated formative period in the emergence of a separate European civilization in the Slavic lands.
At the end of the postclassical era, eastern European civilization fell on hard times due to the siege of Byzantium and Russia.
The differences between western and eastern Europe were confirmed by these difficulties.
Despite some new problems, Western Europe remained free from outside control.
When eastern Europe came back, it was at a disadvantage to western Europe in terms of power and economic and cultural sophistication.
Byzantine collapse was profoundly disruptive.
The key features of the Kievan social structure were lost in Russia.
Continuity was not completely lost.
The pride in a lively artistic culture and assumptions about political rulers and church-state relations were some of the organizing threads when Russia and other Slavic societies turned to rebuilding.
State building was an obvious feature.
The Byzantine empire and eastern Europe were carefully organized because of military challenges.
The Byzantine trade was a central part of the transregional trading Byzantine example, but the kingdoms they created were more network, bringing links to Arab traders.
The Baltic to Constantinople helped to link northern Europe to the final centuries of the postclassical era because of the decline in the vitality of eastern Europe.
Along the weaknesses in the Byzantine Empire, there was a number of Arab coins.
The trade routes show the key links.
Russia became more isolated, raising questions about what kind of Eastern Europe served as a stage for major cultural change contacts when it began to regain and connection by the 15th century.