The global currency of the Early Modern period was silver.
Japanese mines traded with Europe and China.
The engraving shows a view of a mountain.
Latin American silver was great for Europeans.
This was its main gain from the American colonies.
Spain wants to build huge armies and new public buildings.
Most of the silver was sent to Europe based on control of the seas, including the Atlantic and Pacific.
They used silver to buy national exchange of foods, diseases, Asian goods that had been sought, such as indian spices and Chinese porcelain.
Spanish sent silver to the Philippines, where it was traded for Chinese products sent to elites in the Americas and Europe.
Europeans were able to buy Asian imports that they could not have otherwise.
China and India were the largest recipients of new World silver.
Economic growth in Asia was supported by silver.
Silver was required for purchases of food.
The tax payments were made in silver.
In the early 19th century, China's standard of living was superior to that of western Europe.
There were also concerns.
The poor had to struggle to find the silver they needed to pay their taxes because many Chinese thought that silver was creating a wider gap between rich and poor.
Most Europeans agreed that the new consumer goods were worth the trouble, even though a few mused that they would only be able to get silver in Asia.
Many ordinary Latin Americans are worried about the working conditions in the mines.
The voyages of Columbus and other explorers and the empires built by European con querors and missionaries are some of the consequences that this chapter deals with.
The redefinition of interchanges among major societies in the world resulted from the power shift in world affairs.
The story isn't just the familiar one.
The huge shifts affecting the Americas and Africa were caused by European countries.
African and Asian contributions were active as well.
The knowledge of the Islamic world's superior economy was brought about by the Crusades.
The fall of the khans disrupted this interchange, as China became once again a land of mys tery to Europeans.
The goods were loaded onto vessels from Genoa and Venice in Italy and transported to the Middle East in Arab ships.
Europeans entered into this era with many disadvantages.
They were ignorant of the world as a whole.
The vikings crossed the Atlantic in the 10th century and named it Vinland.
They lost interest in establishing settlements on the other side of the world because they encountered indigenous warriors who could cause serious problems.
Europeans were afraid that distant voyages would fall off the world's edge.
Europeans were worried about the strength of the Ottoman empire and the lack of gold to pay for Asian imports as they launched a more consistent effort at expansion.
Initial settlements in the south Atlantic gave hope for further gains.
The first expeditions were limited by the small, oar-propelled ships used in the Mediterranean trade.
A series of technological improvements began to change the equation in the 15th century.
Europeans developed deep-draft, round-hul ed sailing ships that could carry heavy weaponry.
They were using a compass.
Mapmaking and other navigation devices improved.
There are new combinations of sails on European ships to take advantage of different wind directions.
European ships owe these innovations to being able to navigate in mid-ocean, no longer dependent on coastal waters, and having greater speed and flexibility in the Indian Ocean.
European knowledge of explosives, a Chinese invention, was adapted into a gunnery.
The first guns and cannons were designed by Western metalsmiths.
Although not very accurate, these weapons were awesome by the standards of the time and terrifying to many Europeans, who had reason to fear the new destructive power of their own armies.
The West began to have a military advantage over all other civilizations of the world in the first half of the 20th century.
western Europe was ready for its big push because of its ability to kill and intimidate from a distance.
Portugal's location in the Atlantic made it a good location for new initiatives.
Portugal's rulers were drawn by the excitement of discovery, the harm they might cause to the Muslim world, and a thirst for wealth.
The Portuguese began to press down the African coast in 1434.
They brought back slaves, spices, and stories of gold that had not been found before.
Exhausted sailors forced the expedition back before it could reach India.
Portugal tried to stave off the new Spanish competition after learning of Columbus's dis covery of America.
In 1498, a Hindu pilot picked up four ships in Africa and brought them to India.
The Indians were thought to be Christians by the Portuguese.
The Muslim merchants who dominated trade in this part of the world were hostile and they brought only crude goods for sale.
They had some gold as well.
They had a small load of spices.
Europeans substitute force for their lack of attractive items for world trade.
Da Gama used ships' guns to intimidate, and his forces killed or tortured many Indian mer chants to set an example.
An annual series of Portuguese voyages to the Indian Ocean began after Da Gama's success was outlined in Map 21.1.
One expedition blew off course and reached Brazil.
By 1514 the Portuguese established trade with Africa and found the fabled Christian reached the islands of Indonesia, the center of spice production and the kingdom of prester John.
The Portuguese expedition that arrived in Japan in 1542 met with success for several decades.
The country was reconquered from Muslim rule and was full of zeal and missionary zeal.
The Spanish traveled into the Atlantic during the 14th century.
Genoese believed the round earth would make his quest possible.
The captain in service of the king and queen failed to reach the Americas and instead named them "Indians"
Amerigo Vespucci led an expedition that gave the New World its name.
Spain wants to claim in the Americas.
The first trip around the world was the basis of Spain's claim to the Philippines.
Spanish captain who in 1519 initi and in the Indian port of Goa, a lease on the Chinese port of Macao, short-lived interests in trade ated first circumnavigation of the with Japan and finally the claim on Brazil.
Spain held onto the Philippines, various Pacific globe, and the bulk of the Americas.
Spain was allowed to claim the Philippines during the 16th century.
The Spanish sent expedi tions northward from Mexico into California and other parts of the southwestern United States.
The lead in exploration was passed to northern Europe in the 16th century as newly strong monarchies, such as France and England, got into the act.
It was because Spain and Portugal were busy absorbing the gains they had already made that the shift in dynamism occurred.
In 1588, Britain defeated the Spanish Armada in a sea battle.
The British, the Dutch, and the French vied for control of the seas northward because they could not challenge the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
In the West Indies, northern Europe seized islands originally claimed by Spain.
The economic potential of such voyages was appreciated by the new explorers.
European Catholics emphasized religious inter ests more than Britain and Holland did.
Two 16th-century English explorers were told to keep an eye out for native populations along the way because they would provide a perfect market for English woolens.
It could be used as a source of fish for Britain if the territory was unpopu late.
A quest for profit has become a dominant policy motive.
In 1534, French explorers crossed the Atlantic to reach Canada.
In the 17th century, expeditions from Canada went into the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi valley.
The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinks it was done by an unknown German artist who had never been to America but based his drawing on the testimony of those who had.
The people are naked, handsome, brown.
The British started looking at North America as early as 1497.
During the 16th century, the English explored the Hudson Bay area of Canada, but they did not find a northwest passage to India.
The east coast of North America was colonized by England in the 17th century.
For a time, Holland had holdings in Brazil.
After winning independence from Spain, the Dutch became a major competitor with Portugal in southeast Asia.
The Portuguese were ousted from the Indonesian islands by the Dutch in the early 17th century.
The Netherlands explored the coast of Australia.
Holland established a settlement on the southern tip of Africa in the 17th century to provide a relay station for its ships bound for the East Indies.
These companies were given government monopolies of trade in stock company that obtained the regions, but they were not supervised by their own states.
They had the right to raise armies and coin money on their own.
Semiprivate companies, amassing great commercial Asia, acted as virtually independent fortunes and acted like independent governments in the regions they claimed.
For a while, it claimed, government in regions.
The stock company that obtained companies traded in furs.
It claimed that the work was tiring and uncertain, with voyages lasting many months or years.
One expedition did not accept married men because they would miss their families too much.
Causation and the West's Expansion because of their interest in social change is easier to prove.
What are the factors that explain agriculture in Asia and the Americas?
Scientists can gain a fairly precise understanding of the surge if political causation is not the cause.
In the 16th century, rivalries factors that produce a phenomenon: Remove an ingredient, for between the nation-states motivated a continuing quest for new example, and the product changes.
There are more trade routes and colonies in the past.
There is room for a simpler, technologically determin that never happens the same way twice.
Knowledge of advances is impossible to benefit from.
Historians in China and the Middle East disagree about causality.
Naval cannons were introduced.
It helps us explore a phenomenon itself by probing causa.
Europeans advanced in areas they could reach the nature of Western expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries by sea and dominated by ships' guns.
Europe gained because historians and other social scientists looked to a few technological edges.
anthropologists are cultural determinists They judge it on how many questions it answers.
Chinese did other societies that were aware of Europe's innovations, such as Greeks, respond differently to emotional stimuli as China, deliberately decide not to imitate Western naval tech because of their different cultural conditioning.
A different culture determined a different reaction is a technological or economic determinism.
The Chinese learned how to benefit from technological change in the West.
Technology and culture argue that economic arrangements went hand in hand.
The economy is structured and what groups control it is needed in this case.
Historians used to claim that great men were the prime movers in his causation, but we can't expect a uniform agreement.
We can expect a lot of debate.
The causes of change became the topic of a debate that has moved our understanding beyond the surface.
There is room for an analysis of a great man.
Cultural causation can be used.
The range and significance of developing from the 1490s exchange began to increase steadily.
The Americas made exchanges global, affecting almost all major regions.
The impact was visible quickly.
Millions of Native Americans were victims.
They died in large numbers during the 16th and 17th centuries.
In North and South America, more than half the native population would die.
The entire island population in the West Indies was wiped out.
The blow to earlier civilizations in the Americas as well as an opportunity for Europeans to forge a partially new population of their own citizens and slaves imported from Africa was caused by this.
In some areas it was more rapid than in others.
The same terrible pattern played out when Europeans made contact with Polynesians and Pacific Coast peoples in the 18th century.
Other exchanges were not as bad.
Western merchants spread new World crops quickly.
Large population increases were triggered by pro ductive new crops and local agricultural improvements.
China experienced long-term population growth in the 17th century due to new crops.
Major population upheaval occurred when Europeans introduced the potato.
The world system created during the Early Modern period relied on food.
30 percent of the world's food comes from plants of American origin.
Corn was a staple in the African diet.
Europeans were more conservative.
There were rumors that American foods spread disease.
French fries were being sold on the streets of Paris by the 1680s, despite the fact that it took more than a century for the potato to gain ground.
The environmental impact of The Columbian Exchange was substantial.
Europeans ignored the mental experience of local populations in the Americas, bent on introducing European products and expanding output.
Increased soil erosion is an obvious result of the introduction of sheep, which devastated local vegetation in many parts of the Americas.
In the Americas, the desire to expand exports led to an increase in deforestation.
25 percent of the world's forests were cut down by 1700, and by 1850 the percent age had risen to 50.
Between 1650 and 1750, forest clearances in Latin America increased five-fold.
Fishing and hunting have expanded.
The fur trade resulted in the loss of many species.
New forms of deep-sea whaling developed in the 16th century and began to provide cheap food for slaves in order to cut into supplies of cod.
New trading opportunities and population changes resulted in new labor.
Europeans sought alternatives to sugar because of market demand and the lack of local workers in the Americas.
Experiments with workers brought from Europe under tight contracts that controlled their labor for many years had some success, but failed to recruit enough labor.
The slave trade with Africa proved to be a more important response, with millions forcibly shipped across the Atlantic.
Atlantic slavery was not an imitation of earlier slave systems.
Plantation owners worked to increase production and discipline.
The global effort to increase human labor during the Early Modern period was led by the Columbian Exchange.
The Indian Ocean is completely dominated by them.
While growing European bases were established along the east African coast, Muslim traders remained active and commerce continued to grow in India.
Western Europe used war ships to muscle in on trade between other societies, as between India and southeast Asia.
disproportionate control by merchant companies increased the European ability to determine the framework for international trade and greatly increased Europe's overall profits.
The Turks rebuilt their fleet and continued Spanish and Ottoman activity in the eastern Mediterranean, but they could not challenge the Europeans on the larger, leading to a Spanish victory in 1571.
Although western Europe did not conquer much inland territory in Africa or Asia, it did seek a limited network of secure harbors.
European ports spread along the west coast of Africa, as well as parts of India and southeast Asia, by the 17th century.
In China, where strong governments limited the Europeans' ability to seize harbors, the Portuguese were able to control the island port of Macao.
European-controlled ports provided access to inland goods not directly within the reach of the West, as well as being areas for contact with overland traders.
European influence led to the creation of special western enclaves in existing cities.
In the Ottoman empire, Western merchants were allowed to form limited self-governing communities with other foreign merchants, and in Russia, Western shipping agents were allowed to set up shop in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Dutch traders were given special access to the port of Nagasaki after a firm isolationist policy was launched in Japan about 1600.
The point was that international trade increased in importance.
Merchants from western Europe gained access to East Asian markets, even though Chinese traders were still dominant.
European nations were the most active in world trade.
Spain imported silver from the Americas.
It did not have a good banking system and could not support a full commercial surge.
England, France, and Holland were the first countries to make a lot of money from world trade.
Western Europe expanded its manufacturing operations so that it could export finished goods, such as guns and cloth, in return for raw materials, such as silver and sugar.
This was a profit margin.
Home-based manufacturing was stimulated by the policies of the tariffs.
The exchange of human labor was important.
Parts of sub-Saharan Africa entered the new world economy as suppliers of slaves.
The earlier west promotion of limitation of imports African patterns of trade across the Sahara yielded to a dominant focus on the Atlantic and therefore from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax to activities organized by Western shippers.
Europeans made a lot of money during the 17th century by trading their manufactured items, including guns, for slaves and unprocessed goods.
The new world economic relationships were very strong.
The areas established as depen dent by the 17th century still have some special burdens in world trade today.
Not all people in Latin America and Africa were poor.
Slave traders and princes might make a lot of money.
Regional merchants and farmers were required to provide food for the silver mines and commercial estates in Latin America.
Many peasants in Latin America and even more in Africa were not involved in a market economy at all, but rather produced for local subsistence with traditional motives and methods.
Significant minorities were involved in production.
Most African and Latin American landlords did not fully control their own terms of trade.
Their wealth did not help local manufacturing or the economy as a whole.
They imported European-made goods, including art objects and luxury items.
The trends of the sort indicated in this table raise more questions about cause and effect.
What are the trends?
Spice production in the Dutch East Indies and the British of forced labor came about because peasants were forced into labor without the legal freedom areas colonized by Spain.
Early in the 15th century, the Chinese government abandoned large-scale interna of the Dutch Trading Company and avoided involvement with international trade on someone else's terms.
Some firearms manufacturing from the Europeans was copied, but at a low level.
It depended on extensive government regulation and a coastal navy to keep European activities in check.
Most of the limited trade was done through Macao.
Europeans hated China's disdain for military advances.
The military was written about by a Jesuit.
The Chinese were criticized for adhering to tradition.
The Chinese could not be persuaded to use new instruments and leave their old ones without an order from the Emperor, according to a Western missionary in the 17th century.
China avoided trying to keep up with European developments while avoiding subservience to European merchants.
Europeans sent a lot of American silver to China to pay for the goods they wanted because of Chinese manufacturing gains.
At the end of the 18th century, a famous British mission tried to get the government to open the country to more trade.
The British envoy was told by the imperial court that the Chinese didn't need outside goods.
European eagerness for Chinese goods was not matched by Chinese enthusiasm, but a trickle of trade continued.
The early Industrial Revolu tion, particularly in Britain, was a result of Westerners developing their own porcelain industry by the 18th century.
There were still hopes for commercial entry to China.
Japan was attracted by Western expeditions in the 16th century.
Korea did the same.
The Japanese were interested in Western advances in shipping and gunnery.
The interest in exotic was captured by artists.
There was no disdain for military life in Japan, so guns were relevant to the ongoing feudal wars.
Japanese leaders worried about the impact of Western influence on internal divisions among warring lords, as well as the threat guns posed to samurai military dominance.
They encouraged a local gunmaking industry that matched existing European muskets and small cannon fairly readily, but having achieved this, they cut off most contact with any world trade.
Most Japanese were forbidden to travel or trade abroad, the small Christian minority was suppressed, and from the 17th until the 19th centuries Japan entered a period of almost complete isolation except for some Chinese contact and trading concessions to the small Dutch enclave near Nagasaki.
Other societies were involved in world trade.
The rulers of India's new Mughal empire were interested in Western traders and even encouraged the establishment of small port enclaves.
In return for New World silver, India manufactured cottons textiles and other items.
Most of the attention was on internal development and land-based expansion and commerce.
Despite the presence of small European enclaves in key cities, the same held true for the Ottoman and Safavid empires in the Middle East through the 17th century.
Until the 18th century, Russia was partially outside the world economic circle.
Russia's trade with nomadic peoples in central Asia insulated it from west European demands.
The world economy gained ground over time as the center of the process of globalization.
The formation of new kinds of empire is linked to the process.
South America, the West Indies, a part of North America, and some regions in west Africa were first staked out as colonies in the 16th century.
The parts of southeast Asia that produced for world markets were brought into the spotlight by the 17th century.
The Mughal empire began to fall apart as Western traders advanced in India.
The British and French East India Companies had increasing roles in internal trade and administration.
In order to protect their own cotton industry, Britain passed tariffs against the import of cot ton cloth made in India.
The British wanted to use India as a market for British-processed goods and a source of gold by the late 18th century.
Observers in India were aware of the shifting balance.
The British show little regard to the people of this kingdom, and their apathy and indifference for their welfare, that the people under their control are reduced to poverty and distress.
India had a complex regional economy with a lot of internal manufacturing and trade.
The position outside the world economy was changing to disadvantage India.
The turing began to decline.
The world economy and the west European core were brought into a relationship with Eastern Europe.
The market for imported grains was created by the growth of cities in the West.
Much of the demand was met by growers in Prussia and Poland.
serfs who were subjected to long periods of labor service produced most of the export grains.
Outside of Poland, east European governments were much stronger than their Latin American counterparts.