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8.11 Measurement of Blood Pressure -- Part 2
The particles in the material have motion.
The hotness of a body is a measure of the internal energy of the body, which is faster in hotter bodies.
The hotter an object is, the greater its internal energy.
The sensation of hotness is caused by random atomic and molecular motion.
The internal energy of matter is related to the temperature.
The equations that describe the behavior of matter as a function of temperature can be derived using these concepts.
Gases are easy to analyze.
The theory considers a gas made of small particles in random motion.
Each particle travels in a straight line until it collides with another particle or with the walls of the container.
The direction and speed of the particle are changed after a collision.
The energy is exchanged among particles.
The particles exchange energy with each other and with the wall of the container.
If the walls of the container are hotter than the gas, the particles colliding with the wall on the average pick up energy from the vibrating molecule in the wall.
The gas is heated until it is as hot as the walls.
There is no net exchange of energy between the walls and the gas after that.
The average amount of energy delivered to the wall by the gas particles is the same as the amount picked up from it.
The individual particles in a gas vary in speed and energy.
It is possible to divide the total number of particles by the total number of individual particles in the container in order to calculate an average kinetic energy for the particles.
If each particle has the same average energy, then many of the properties of a gas can be derived.
The absolute temperature scale is used to measure the temperature in this equation.
38 x 10-23 J/molecule K is the velocity.
When a molecule collides with the wall, the momentum is transferred to the wall.
The change in momentum is a force.
The pressure exerted by a gas on the walls of a container is due to the many collisions of the gas molecule with the container.
The calories are equal to 4.184 J.
1 Cal is equal to 1000 cal and heat is measured in kilocalorie units.
The temperature of 1 g of a substance can be raised by 1 degree with specific heat.
Table 9.1 shows the specific heats of some substances.
The human body is made of water, fat, and minerals.
This composition is reflected by its specific heat.
The heat of the average human body is closer to 0.83 due to its fat and mineral content, which we have not included in the calculation.
The symbol is degree Celsius.
The symbol C* has a Celsius degree.
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