ChAPTER 4 -- Part 10: Unification and the Consolidation
Several striking features were involved in the formation of the classical societies.
Expansion was a key theme of each major civilization.
Each society worked hard to integrate its new territory.
Economic integration was a key issue, as societies from China to the Mediterranean developed internal trade routes and other mechanisms to take advantage of different specialties through commercial expansion.
Cultural integration was important as well.
Intellectual and artistic leaders, sometimes with encouragement from the state, developed core ideas and styles that were then widely disseminated, particularly among elites but with some spillover to wider populations.
The establishment of unifying empires was one of the ways each society worked on political and social integration.
The contacts that developed among different regions spurred trade and communication.
After the classical period had ended, all of these features would affect world history.
The classical civilizations emerged about 600 b.c.e.
despite the lack of a clear transition.
The military was attracted to the centers of civilization as immigrants because of the spread of iron tools and weap diers.
Some people are nomadic.
These developments led to further developments intended to integrate the time and had implications for later patterns in world history.
The decline of each of the classical societies allowed for later nomadic migrations into the classical societies.
The western Roman Empire collapsed because of the achievements of the major classical civilizations.
The classical period ended by 600 c.e.
because politics, art, and philosophy did not happen at the same time.
Confucianism, for example, would influence other Asian societies besides China, and a number of societies, including those in Europe and the Middle East, would be influenced by Greek science.
The classical civilizations had their own social structure, religion, political system, system of science, and styles of art.
The differences left a lasting legacy.
The introduction of iron helped bring about the classi century, but the Chinese government did not force drastic changes in birth rates.
The indians are in charge of manufacturing technology.
Most peasants tried to follow the same regulations.
An important reason for China's success was its rural culture, while India's failure was due to its population policy.
Many rural people in each country retained their traditional festivals and polytheistic religious roles in order to be monitored by the government.
The classi Patriarchal arrangements prevailed in each of the major cal periods.
Civilizational styles set in the classical period are not the same as those of the classical period.
Each culture has its own way of defining women's roles and obligations.
The basic idea of patriarchal superiority had already left legacies, as the first major change different styles of patriarchy would affect family life and even was the development of reasonably well-defined societies that art.
Major civilization promoted a been established.
The patriar common cultural system was linked to the particular cultures and social and family customs of the civilizations.
The classical civilizations might involve more than one component.
There were significant innovations beyond their river valley predecessors, although usually peaceful, competition between them also retained and built on key achievements of the ear Buddhism and Hinduism in India.
The idea of erful beliefs and their spread within each civilization was codes of law or scientific interests.
The heritage that was shaped by the classical civilizations had a lasting impact.
The classical period in world history was more powerful than any that preceded it.
The achievement of old age won achievements and monuments in all the classical civilizations.
It was seen as a sign of good rounding areas.
Habit and wisdom were included in some trade with other regions.
In groups where literacy was common.
India had the widest commercial reach, extending uncommon, the elderly could be vital sources of information and all the way into southeast Asia and west to the Mediterranean, cultural memory, which was transmitted in stories that helped but Rome also traded with parts of Africa and Asia outside its shape the identity of families In all the classical societies, elderly nomadic peoples were a sign of good manners.
A wide area of partially shared cultures was created by the spread of Roman styles.
The emphasis on venerating the elderly was placed by Chinese Confucianism.
Even older women, if they and Hebrews affects policy and outlook in the West, while in were mothers (and especially if they were widows and mothers contrast some east Asian systems write respect for the elderly of sons) had considerable status, although officially their sons into their constitutions.
There was ambivalence about older people in Mediterranean cultures.
The themes of wisdom and respect were more visible to men than to women.
As their capacities declined, the elderly were depicted as greedy and laughable.