ChAPTER 15 -- Part 10: A New Civilization Emerges in
At this point in Europe, some of the elaborate ceremonies of chivalry seemed rather hollow, even a bit silly, a sign that medieval values were losing hold without being replaced by a new set of purposes.
Dramatic shifts in the balance between the church and state were involved.
Avignon, a town surrounded by French territory, was where the French kings relocated after the taxation disputes of the early 14th century.
The issue was confused further by the rival claims to the papacy.
The church was clearly weakened after a single pope was returned to Rome.
The church lost some of its hold on western religious life.
The spiritual side was neglected by the church leaders because they were so focused on politics.
New religious groups formed in the towns as signs of popular piety continued to blossom.
The institution of the church became separated from devotion.
A series of popular heresies began in the 14th century, with lead ers in places such as England and the Czech Republic preaching against the church in favor of direct popular experience of God.
A new group of mystics, many of them women, claimed to have direct, emotional contacts with God.
The breakdown of intellectual and artistic synthesis was a third area in which medievalism faded.
Church officials became less tolerant of intellectual daring after the work of Aquinas.
The blend of rationalism and religion was no longer feasible.
The shift away from medieval artistic standards was suggested by the growing interest in realistic portrayals of nature.
As painters became more interested in human features, religious figures became less stylized.
The Western intel community looked for different emphases because of the constraints on postclassical culture.
New kinds of literature and art took shape in Italy that differed from the styles and subjects of the postclassical centuries.
The Postclassical West and its Heritage Medieval Europe had many faces.
Medieval Europe grappled with vulnerability and backwardness.
The Middle Ages were also a period of growth.
Gains in population, trade and cities created a vigorous period in European history.
After the specific medieval centuries had ended, key developments set a tone that would last.
The Postclassical Period, 600-1450: New Faith and New Commerce Gothic style for their buildings, were an enduring legacy to Western society.
Another medieval contribution was the idea of building on Christian and feudal traditions.
The relationship between Europe and the regions around it was special during the medieval period.
Technology, science, trade and consumption were some of the areas where opportunities to advance by imitation were striking.
The higher schools of the Muslim world may have had Arab origins.
Europe was able to develop new contacts, but it did not reach the levels of the leading Asian societies.
Medieval Europe should be compared with other areas in which civilization was partially new during the postclassical period and where change and imitation proceeded quickly.
The only feudal societies in the period were west Africa and Japan.
Europe, Africa, Japan, and Russia can be compared with the imitation process.
The Crusades revealed a distinctive expansionist spirit in Europe that warrants attention, suggesting a more aggressive interest in the wider world than the other emerging societies were demonstrating.
Products and technologies were imported from Asia.
Europe seemed at the mercy of invasions, from the came from world contacts, while reducing the sense of threat.
Because of the advantages that central Asia, nomadic groups push in from the north.
The new civilization developed of Islam, which controlled most of the Mediterranean, was something European leaders were aware of.
Europe did not.
Islam became a major attraction for people in other societies because most Europeans saw it as a false religion.
There was a lot to be learned from this balance during the early part of the period.
During the Middle Ages, Europeans copied manufacturing and culture, which was popular outside of Islam.
What do developments in European agricultural look like?