Charles XII of Sweden was poised to become a major power in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Taking his persistence paid off.
In the Battle of Poltava advantage of Russia's Time of Troubles, the Russians destroyed the Swedish army and the Poles captured Moscow for a few years.
The Polish nation, which included Lithuania, received the Swedish Baltic provinces and some Polish in a dual kingdom, was far from strong.
Powerful rulers believe that prompt punishment to reign marked the apex of Mughal rose in the Asian states.
The emperors are the ones who violate the laws of their power.
By would become strong enough to rival country is an alternative with which no time of his death in 1707, reckless the Western powers and control relations person with the reins of power spending, endless military campaigns, with European traders.
persecution of Hindus and Sikhs had a proud history.
The regime was weakened when he struggled to bring unruly sections.
Aurangzeb's Islamic Turkish tribe swept into the one time ordering a bloody campaign weaker successors failed to overcome after rebellions broke out in the Mughals.
The Indian subcontinent was against Afghans.
Many townships have been ruined and devastated by one battle, which was paraded before the emperor by prisoners, according to one observer.
The European was accompanying his crowning.
For the Indian trade in textiles, spices, and jewels, and shoulder to shoulder, stood emperor, who gave his wife a major sugar.
The round in brilliant array was waiting for a role in running the government.
The Portuguese enjoyed sports, literature, and art as well as ish and French forged strategic political alli already established a habit to smoke opium regularly.
He pursued a base on the west Indian coast after completing his ances with Indian states.
The English, French, and Dutch were allowed to establish trading bases in held power by the Mughals.
The European and Mughal monarchs were concerned about the similarities between India and India without power.
Their treasuries were weakened by policies.
Merchants were punished by the king and the Polish rulers because of their ethnic and religious differences.
The economy stumbled.
The Polish people remained serfs in the late Middle Ages, bound to the estates overland commerce between the Black and Baltic seas of the powerful nobility.
In the face of such forces, only a strong central ing of commercial routes and centers to the west in government could have ensured stability for Poland.
Poland proved weakest here.
They guarded their power peers, and the final PDF to printer upper hand.
There was only one king in England.
When King Sigismund II died and the Jagellon dynasty ended, about four hundred noble families jealously guarded their exclusive position.
Commentators said that no strong king ascended the throne and accepted it.
The system guarantees that there is no order wall of privilege in the mid-seventeenth century.
Over the course of the 17th century, revolts to turn out, hats in hand, to welcome Ukrainian Cossack warriors and wars with Russia.
The loss religious policy that forbad members took off of their Polish territories resulted from a Protestant sect.
The chaos was worsened by something.
The Tatar slave raid nobles were no longer essential or noble.
Populations were pushed from their homes and often the role of money was shifted.
It was slaughtered in the early modern world.
The old wealth of the nobility had fallen relative to the new money of merchants and through Poland during the pogroms that swept to the "new money" of Jews.
Protestants are also entrepreneurs.
No longer were these years here.
By the beginning of the mercenary century, the realm was vulnerable to surrounding powers that armies made up of commoners now took care of.
The key to upward mobility began to unfold when education had tral Europe.
The absolute power in England seemed to be based on knowledge and service rather than birth.
The nobility had little history of common action between traditional places.
Critics said that classes and their struggle against noblemen were becoming more arrogant.
In England, there was a tradition of taking advantage of their privileges.
Joint parliamentary action by nobles and commoners can exceed the bounds of propriety.
In 1635, the Earl of who owned land lost his temper when the mayor of the city did something to help sovereignty.
Don't greet him in the traditional way.
The government residing in the person of an absolute earl grabbed the mayor's staff and proceeded to beat him with it, shouting "I will kings, would come to rule".
For over a thousand years, the English took the social classes separate and the situation in England for granted.
Peas were no different.
The final PDF is going to be printed.
Men and women insisted on buying clothes that were better than those of the highest classes.
There wasn't a visual marker of a person's noble status.
The nobles were able to protect their property rights more than their fashion privileges.
The nobility were given the exclusive right to hunt on their own lands.
The new mandates allowed them to use lethal trapguns.
The laws only made the people angry, as the poor continued to steal to survive.
Many members of the nobility tried to hold on to their privileges while others tried to remove them.
James is dressed in the clothes of the nobility that the law tried to preserve.
The lace at his throat is handcrafted, and his stockings are made of fi nest silk.
Louis XIV's trademark symbol is embroidered in silver thread on his jacket sleeve.
The painting shows James with his hunting dog and proclaims his position through his hunting rights.
Here, James Stuart is shown in nobility, they would receive fewer and fewer admiring the lavish clothing that only the noble could wear, accompanied by glances from their fellow humans.
Because many Protestants were involved in the anti-Catholic movement, their wealth was helped by this prejudice.
Some Protestants wanted their concerns to be more visible.
For many, the com purify daily life, objecting to theater, cockfi ghts, and promise of Elizabeth I that other seemingly frivolous activities.
Although indi allowed worshipers of many beliefs to share one another's beliefs, they disagreed on how England was.
The critics believed that the Church of England needed to change in order to survive.
Puritans in England reconsidered the political rela and the elaborate rituals of the Anglican Church after they objected to priestly garments.
Some tionship between monarchs and their subjects wanted to eliminate the bishop altogether, preferring to keep their loyalties between law and rule by church elders.
James wrote two treatises in the 17th century about a struggle for sovereignty that dominated the throne.
As early as 1561, the Scot asserted the divine right of kings, and in 1610 he warned Queen Mary of Scot to send this position to a skeptical Parliament.
The monarchs were responsible to their subjects.
They mount to a call to revolution because of this.
They could not agree with his hasty execution of the accused help but consider the possibility of political action.
The English colonies grew because Queen Elizabeth I died childless.
The attention to the New World throne went to her cousin, the king of Scotland, who was related to James.
James rushed to monarch after hearing of Elizabeth's death, and was founded in Virginia with great plans.
Correct, the king had the right to do so.
Many ment was forwarded by James's high-handed attitude of his subjects who turned out to see his new dog.
Unfortunately for the king, some took him lit popular, or as politically shrewd as Good Queen Bess, when he threatened to arch.
Unlike his predecessor, he was to the Church of England and was unable to mollify the differing religious beliefs of his north, so they avoided him.
He favored Anglicanism in 1620.
His most enduring heritage was the translation of the solution to James's religious or fi scal problems.
The death of the King James Bible left a shortage of money and an oversupply of ill which remains widely admired as both religion and will among both Parliament and Protestants.
Calvinists James's son, Charles I, tried to eliminate his father's rule and policies at the beginning of his reign.
The king was familiar with Scottish practices that invoke the divine right of kings.
James' relationship with his subjects deteriorated quickly.
If they didn't conform to his father's beliefs, he approached Parliament in the same way.
Charles married a sister of the Catholic session while he was planning to blow up Parliament.
The conspirators were exe king Louis XIII of France.
He was cut after his wedding.
Although the marriage negotiations fell through, English Protestants were not happy about it.
Charles was critical of the king and many of his subjects.
The Puritans found James to be arbitrary and loyal because he persecuted them.
The Puritans settled so arrogant in North America.
James had a different idea of what New England should be than Elizabeth did.
The old England was desperate before he ascended.
Long Parliament continued to meet from 1640 to 1653.
It gained a Parliamentarians, Beginning measure of power, and established SCOTLAN D of 1645 protections for the religious freedom controlled by the Royalists.
The alliance ended there.
The king and Irish didn't trust Parliament to share control of their armies.
It was the immediate enemy for either side.
The rural areas were more likely to support the king, and the Puritan strongholds in the cities followed.
The locations of the parliamentarian and royalist supporters, support, noblemen, cavalry offi cers, and Irish Catho were pinpointed in response to Charles's call.
Parliament recruited an army of 13,000 strong.
The royalists had more experience in battles than the Scots.
Par skilled generals.
The royalist liament forced him to agree that the king's forces fought a civil war without the consent of the members.
Charles's forces were led by Cromwell.
Parliament forces had won a number of victories, but they reverted back to a tradition of tories, and Charles surrendered to the Scots.
They believed that Parliament should try to free him, leaders of be chosen by the vote of all male heads of households, and that Parliament faced new challenges as more and more people were drawn to vote.
They wanted Parlia to be involved in the events of the 1640s.
Dent income could serve women from all social groups.
A number of noblewomen believed that only property brought privilege and posed a major threat to those without their husbands.
The civil war passed themselves off as Round broke out again as Charles encouraged his head soldiers.
Charles ordered supporters to rise up to free him.
Cromwell's forces intended to prevent women from joining the army and promptly crushed the uprisings.
The king wanted Charles to be tried for treason.
The majority of Parliament members refused to serve as soldiers because the was not in a position to enforce this.
It is not possible to know how many women fought for their cause, but Parliament purges the cautious.
The fact that Charles tried to legislate their exclusion members suggests that he and his advisors thought the opponents and historians brought the king to trial.
The Rump Parliament tried Charles as a king, but women were better suited as spies because they were expected to be noncombatants.
The king's cause was represented by this bold act.
Charles was imprisoned after 1646, and the tall redhead tried to get the government to free him.
He could break free if the metal bars were weakened.
The testimony in the trial and differing opin men and women raised new demands for social justice.
A series of bad harvests caused food shortages, and the disabled soldiers were forced to return home to rule according to their will.
They were no longer able to earn a living.
He claimed that the social order in Parlia deteriorated.
One contemporary said that ment had no right to bring charges against him.
Groups of radical Protestants arose from these diffi cult the trial as he consistently reiterated his position.
He became part of Parliament's agenda.
Charles claimed that God had a wide range of agendas.
Final PDF to printer claimed sovereignty.
On January 30, 1649, the king was taken to a scaffold in front of the palace.
A rash of etchings and paint chaos erupted throughout the realm as the Rump Parliament began to rule the republic.
Oliver Cromwell was a contemporary commenta champion and Parliament had an able tion.
Cromwell's army controlled king made many in the crowd sympathetic.
Scotland and woman fainted in the center after the Cromwell was effective and ground, leaning on his cane and crying.
Charles addressed the few people near him more to worry about than the wars.
A group of people had a share in government in 1649.
Charles laid his head on the block and said that the rights and freedoms of the nation that you and the executioner severed with one blow.
These were odd times to have a republic in which sovereignty rested and many wondered if Parliament's victory in with representatives of those who owned property.