Some of Freud's early followers developed their own theories.
These approaches are referred to as psychodynamic or neo-Freudian approaches.
Psychodynamic theories were created by Carl Jung and Alfred Adler.
The personal unconscious and the collective unconscious are part of the unconscious.
Freud's view of the unconscious is similar to the personal unconscious.
Jung believed that an individual's unconscious contains memories and thoughts that the person doesn't want to confront.
The collective unconscious was compared by Jung to the personal unconscious.
According to Jung, the collective unconscious is passed down through the species.
Jung defined universal concepts we all share as part of the human species.
The persona is people's creation of a public image and the shadow is the evil side of personality.
The widespread existence of certain fears, such as fear of the dark, and the importance of the circle in many cultures, provides evidence for Archetypes.
Adler is called an ego psychologist because he downplayed the unconscious and focused on the conscious role of the ego.
Adler believed that people are motivated by fear of failure and the desire to achieve, which he called superiority.
Adler works on the importance of birth order in shaping personality.
According to trait theorists, we can describe people's personality by specifying their main characteristics.
These characteristics are thought to be stable and to motivate behavior in keeping with the trait.
When we talk about someone as friendly, we mean that they act in a friendly manner across different times and situations.
The same basic set of traits can be used to describe all people.
A nomothetic approach is characterized by a belief.
Hans Eysenck believed that we could describe a person's personality by distinguishing them on a scale of introversion-extraversion and stable-unstable.
Raymond Cattell developed a test to measure what he believed to be the 16 basic qualities of a person.
The big five personality traits are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability.
Extraversion is how outgoing someone is.
Agreeableness is dependent on how easy it is to get along with someone.
People who are conscientious tend to be responsible and organized.
One's creativity, curiosity, and willingness to try new things are related to openness to new experiences.
It has to do with how consistent one's mood is.
How can psychologists reduce the number of different terms they use to describe people?
Factor analysis is used to do this.
Factor analysis can be used to see which traits cluster together as factors.
If a correlation is found between punctuality, diligence, and neatness, one could argue that they are related to conscientiousness.
The big five personality traits are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness and emotional stability.
idiographic theorists say that using the same set of terms to classify all people is impossible.
They argue that each person needs to be seen in terms of his or her unique self.
Honesty may be important in describing one person, but it may not be as important in describing someone else.
Gordon Allport believed that a full understanding of a person's personality was impossible without looking at his or her personal characteristics.
There are three different types of personal traits.
He said that a small number of people are so influenced by one trait that it plays a major role in virtually everything they do.
He referred to them as cardinal dispositions.
There are two different types of dispositions that can be used to describe personality.
According to their names, central dispositions have a larger influence on personality than secondary dispositions.
Central dispositions describe more significant aspects of personality.
trait theories underestimate the importance of the situation Nobody is always friendly.
Critics say that to describe someone's personality, we need to consider the context.
Biological theories of personality view genes, chemicals, and body types as the main factors in determining who a person is.
The idea that human personality is shaped by genetics is supported by a growing body of evidence.
People think that trait are not necessarily inherited.
Heritability is a measure of the amount of variation in a trait.
Over 90 percent of the variation in Americans' height is thought to be due to genetic factors.
Intelligence is thought to be 50 to 70 percent heritability, which is less strongly linked to genetic factors.
People's temperaments are typically defined as their emotional style and characteristic way of dealing with the world, and genes play a role in that.
Babies seem to differ immediately at birth.
Some like new stimuli while others are afraid.
Some seem very active and emotional while others are calm.
Babies are born with different temperaments according to psychologists.
A child's personality is thought to be influenced by his or her temperament.
The earliest theories of personality were biological.
Hippocrates believed that personality was determined by the levels of fluids in the body.
Blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm were the four humors.
A cheerful person was said to have a lot of blood.
Hippocrates is thought to be one of the first people to recognize that biological factors impact personality.
The somatotype theory was one of the earliest biological theories of personality.
There are three body types: endomorphs, mesomorphs, and ectomorphs.
The body types were associated with certain personality traits.
For instance, mesomorphs were friendly and outgoing, while endomorphs were shy and secretive.
His methodology has been questioned, and his findings have not been replicated.
Even if it were found to be valid and reliable, his research doesn't show that biology shapes personality.
B. F. Skinner is a radical behaviorist.
According to these theorists, the way most people think of personality is meaningless.
According to this view, personality is determined by the environment.
One's personality is created by the reinforcement contingencies that are exposed.
Behaviorists believe we can change people's personality by changing their environments.
Radical behaviorists are criticized for not recognizing the importance of cognitive functions.
Many psychologists call themselves cognitive-behavioral or social-cognitive theorists.
They have ideas about personality.
There are many models of personality that combine the emphasis on the environment with the focus on patterns of thought.
The models are referred to as social-cognitive or cognitive-behavioral.
Albert Bandura believes that personality is created by an interaction between the person and the environment.
His model is based on the idea of reciprocal determinism.
The three factors influence both of the other two in a constant looplike fashion.
Brad is friendly.
Brad's behavior is influenced by this personality trait.
He goes to a lot of parties because it influences the environments he puts himself in.
Brad's loquacious behavior makes the parties even more partylike.
The more Brad talks, the more friendly he thinks he is.
Brad's outgoing nature is reinforced by the environment of the party, which encourages him to talk to many people.
People's sense of self-efficacy affects their personality.
People with high self-efficacy think they can get things done while people with low self-efficacy think they can't.
Bandura believed that people's sense of self-efficacy has an effect on their actions.
Two students of equal abilities are taking a test.
The one with higher self-efficacy would act in ways to make that happen, for example, spending more time on the test questions.
The theory of personality was proposed by George Kelly.
Kelly believes that people develop their own systems of personal constructs when trying to understand their world.
Such constructs have pairs of opposites such as fair-unfair, smart-dumb, and exciting-dull.
People use these constructs to evaluate their world.
Kelly believed that people's behavior is determined by how they see the world.
His theory is based on the idea that people's behavior is influenced by their cognitive abilities and that by knowing how they have behaved in the past, we can predict how they will act in the future.
Bandura's concept of self-efficacy is one of the ideas put forth by social-cognitive theorists.
The final example is a concept by Rotter.
A person can be described as either an internal or an external control.
People with an internal control feel like they are in charge of what happens to them.
They think hard work will lead to success.
People with an external control believe that luck and other forces outside of their control determine their fate.
A person's control over how they think and act can affect their personality.
A number of positive outcomes have been found to be associated with an internal locus of control.
Internals tend to be more politically active and do better in school than externals.
The findings are based on correlational research, so we can't conclude that the control of the environment causes the differences.
Many of the models of personality are deterministic.
The belief is that what happens is dictated by what has happened in the past.
The personality of an individual is determined by what happened in his or her early childhood.
According to behaviorists, personality is determined by the environment in which one was raised.
The existence of free will is not supported by either theory.
Humanistic psychology has embraced the idea of free will.
The third force is often referred to as the perspective that came in opposition to the determinism.
Humanistic theories of personality view people as innately good and able to determine their own destinies through the exercise of free will.
People's subjective experience and feelings are important to psychologists.
They look at the importance of a person's self-esteem.
A person's self-concept is a global feeling.
Someone with high self-esteem is likely to have a positive self-concept.
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were two of the most influential psychologists.
The men believed that people are motivated to reach their full potential or self-actualize.
You can read about the hierarchy of needs in the motivation chapter.
Rogers came up with self-theory.
Although people are innately good, they need certain things from their interactions with others in order to self-actualize.
blanket acceptance is a kind of positive regard.
No matter what, parents make their children feel loved.
Parents who make their children feel as if they will be loved only if they earn high grades or have good friends are sending the wrong message to their children.
Rogers believes that people need to feel accepted in order to make strides toward self-actualization.
Humanistic theories of personality are criticized for being overly optimistic.
It is difficult to explain the number of terrible acts that people commit if they are innately good and strive to do their best.
Reliability and validity are important in personality assessment.
Even if the results are not accurate, reliable measures still yield the same results.
A valid test measures what it purports to measure.
There is a more detailed discussion of these issues in the testing chapter.
Depending on their theoretical orientation, psychologists' methods of assessing people's personality differ.
The types of psychologists most likely to use some of the most common ways of measuring personality are described below.
Projective tests are used by psychiatrists.
People are asked to interpret stimuli.
The Rorschach test involves showing people a series of inkblots and asking them to describe what they see.
TheTA T consists of a number of cards, each of which has a picture of a person in an ambiguous situation.
People are asked to describe what is happening.
Psychoanalysts say that people's interpretations reflect their unconscious thoughts since the inkblots and TAT cards are ambiguous.
People project their unconscious thoughts onto ambiguous stimuli.
Someone who is struggling with aggressive impulses may be more likely to describe violent themes.
It is a complicated process to score projective tests.
The Rorschach test looks at more than just the content people describe but also the way they hold and turn the card.
Many people think that projective tests are unreliable because they rely so much on the therapists' interpretations.
Self-report inventories are a simpler and more widespread method of personality assessment.
People are asked to provide information about themselves in self-report inventories.
Many different kinds of psychologists, such as humanistic psychologists, trait theorists, and cognitive-behavioral psychologists, might use self-report inventories as one means to gather data about someone.
These kinds of tests are often referred to as objective personality tests since they are unlikely to be affected by evaluator bias since people's scores are determined by their answers.
An interview is a subjective assessment.
Some believe that subjective measures yield richer and more valid data, despite the fact that subjectivity decreases reliability and opens the door to bias.
One of the most widely used self-report instruments is the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory.
People may not be completely honest in answering the questions.
There are "lie scales" built into some tests to try to detect when people are lying.
Radical behaviorists argue that the only way to measure people's personality is to observe their behavior.
Observations of a person's behavior is one way that cognitive-behavioral psychologists can gather data.
People are curious about what personality assessments say about them.
People are susceptible to being deceived because of their curiosity.
People tend to see themselves in stock descriptions of their personality.
The Barnum effect is used by fortune-tellers and psychics.
When confronted with people who offer quick descriptions of your life or future, be skeptical because personality has proved difficult to define.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
Over the course of a year, Cettina fills out a personality inventory.
Each administration of the test has very different results.
Juan never admits he has a crush on Sally.
Dr. Li's clients are asked to interpret ambiguous pictures of people.
People are motivated to self-actualize according to humanistic psychologists.
At age eight, he sucked his thumb.
He smokes, chews gum, and thinks constantly as an adult.