16.2: Insight Therapies: Acquiring Understanding -- Part 1
Tens of thousands of people call themselves therapists, and it's hard to know what kind of therapist to avoid or seek out.
You can use this checklist to find a good therapist and avoid a bad one.
The therapist may not be in a good position to help you if you answer yes to any of the statements.
My therapist talks a lot about his or her personal life or asks me for personal favors in my relationship with her.
We'll look at some of the more prominent therapeutic approaches and evaluate their scientific status in the chapter that lies ahead.
Two schools of insight therapy are reviewed in the psychodynamic and humanistic therapies.
Psychodynamic therapy is usually less expensive and takes less time than psychoanalysis, and it involves only one meeting a week.
There is an emphasis on self-actualization and the belief that human nature is basically positive.
Positive therapists reject the interpretive techniques of psychoanalysis.
Instead, they try to understand clients' thoughts and feelings in the present moment.
They try to analyze distressing thoughts and feelings clients avoid, wishes and Alone fantasies, recurring themes and life patterns, and significant past events.
They believe that when clients gain insight into previously unconscious material, the causes and significance of symptoms will become evident, often causing symptoms to disappear.
PSYCHOANALYSIS: KEY INGREDIENTS is the Freudian concept of free association.
One of the first things Freud did was pull kerchiefs out of forms of psychotherapy.
As clients lie on a couch in a comfortable position, therapists instruct them to say whatever thoughts come to mind, no matter how meaningless or nonsensical they might seem.
Freud developed the technique of free association without the need for censorship, and this information is interesting.
He told his clients to close their eyes and concentrate while he pressed his hand on their forehead.
He suggested that their memories would return to consciousness.
Many therapists consider this procedure to be carrying a risk of generating false memories.
From the client's string of free associations, analysts form hypoth eses regarding the origin of the client's difficulties and share them with him or her.
As in comedy, timing is everything, if the therapist doesn't give the interpretation before the client is ready to accept it, anxiety may derail the flow of new associations.
Freud says dreams express unconscious themes that affect the client's life.
The therapist has to interpret the relation of the dream to the client's waking life and symbolic significance.
The therapist might see the appearance of an ogre in a dream as a representation of a hated and feared parent.
Clients express resistance in many ways, including attempts to avoid confrontation and skipping therapy sessions or drawing a blank when the therapist asks a question about anxiety associated with uncovering painful moments in their past, but all forms of resistance can stall their progress.
The ambiguous figure of the analyst becomes the focus of the therapist's emotions after rected at significant persons from the client's childhood.
A client brought a gun to treatment and pointed it at the therapist.
The therapist said that he meant about your feelings for your father.
Freud believed that transference provided a vehicle for clients to understand their irrational expectations and demands of others.
According to research, we react to people in our present life in similar ways to people in our past.
It is possible that Freud was right about the transference and that our stable personality traits lead us to react to people in similar ways over time.
Some clients may benefit from therapists' interpretations of the transference.
The insight gained in treatment is helpful, but not enough.
As a consequence, therapists have to address conflicts and resistance to achieving healthy behavior patterns more and more.
New therapeutic approaches were spawned by Freud's ideas.
neo-freudian therapists are more interested in the client's functioning than Freudian therapists.
The integration of opposing aspects of the personality, like passive versus aggressive tendencies, into a harmonious "whole", namely, the self.
Jung considered future goals as well as past experiences to help clients achieve individuation.
The impact of cultural influences on behavior across the life span is emphasized by Neo-Freudians.
Beyond Freud's emphasis on sexual, neo-Freudians acknowledge the impact of other needs and suggest that she take more risks.
They are more optimistic than Freud was.
My father's people have a good chance of achieving healthy functioning.
The analyst observes and discovers transference.
In addition to effectively treating depres problems, conflicts, and life sion, IPT has demonstrated success in treating substance abuse and eating disorders comparable with that of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Psychodynamic therapies rely on insight.
Understanding our emotional history is not required to relieve psychological distress.
Some psychodynamic concepts are difficult to change.
The therapist might conclude that the interpretation is accurate if the client improves.
Research supports caution.
Patients attributed improvement to the Ruling Out Rival Hypotheses support.
This is a thought experiment.
You would be right if you thought you would be better able to recall the event.
David Rubin and Dorthe Berntsen found that 61 percent of people who said they would likely seek therapy in the future believed that they might have been victims of childhood sexual abuse.
The authors believed that memory recovery techniques could create false memories of abuse because they found the idea plausible.
The scientific support for repressed memories is weak, and many memories, especially those that stretch to the distant past, are often subject to distortion.
The issue remains controversial.
Classical psychodynamic therapies are questionable from a scientific standpoint.
Freud and Jung's therapeutic observations were mostly based on small samples of wealthy, intelligent, and successful people.
It would be the case with rigorously controlled research.
Although brief versions of psychodynamic therapy are better than no treatment, they may be less effective than cognitive-behavioral therapies.
Psychodynamic therapy isn't particularly effective for psychotic disorders.
Humanistic therapists want to help people overcome the sense of isolation in our culture, to develop their sensory and emotional awareness, and to express their creativity and help them become loving, responsible, and authentic.
Humanistic therapists stress the importance of living fully and finding meaning in the present, not attributing our problems to the past.
Carl Rogers is the best therapist of all time.
The therapist needs to be an authentic, genuine person who reveals his or her own reac tions to what the client is saying.
Rogers believed that a more positive self-concept could be achieved through positive regard.
He said that it allows clients to regain aspects of their "true selves" that they had previously disowned, as a result of others placing conditions of worth on them.
The therapist has to relate to their clients.
To sense the patient's world as if it were our own, but without ever losing the "as if" quality.
Rogers said this is empathy.
You have a lot of experience being the favorite.
With increased awareness and heightened self-acceptance, people hopefully come to think more realistic, become more tolerant of others, and engage in more adaptive behaviors.
Rogers's method of reflection is one of the methods that researchers have developed computer programs to mimic.
This one- to two-session procedure is geared toward clarifying and bringing forth their reasons for changing and not changing their lives, as it recognizes that many clients are ambivalent about changing long-standing behaviors.
According to Rogers, if a father gives his child love only when he receives a good grade, but not when he obsessive, Motivational interviewing has been successful in modifying a variety of psychological conditions.
Discuss why it's an important aspect of person-centered therapy, including the potential impact on the relationship between the client and the therapist.
Some researchers have developed computer programs that try to mimic Rogers's method of reflection.
Here, we can read excerpts from a conversation between a client and a computer therapist.