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22 -- Part 6: Revolutions in the Atlantic World
A radical reorganization on religious life was imposed by the National Assembly.
The small minority of French Jews and Protestants were granted religious freedom.
In 1789, it nationalized the Catholic Church's property and abolished monasteries, using the revenue to back a new paper currency.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was adopted by the National Assembly in July 1790.
The clergy were forced to take an oath of loyalty to the new government.
Only half of the French priests swore the oath after the pope condemned it.
The most constructive and lasting reforms of the French Revolution were in place when Louis XIV accepted the National Assembly's constitution.
The turmoil of the Revolu tion was not over.
War with foreign powers, terror at home, and a change in France's government were some of the things that lay ahead.
The revolution in France caused great excitement in Europe and the United States.
Liberals and radi cals saw a triumph of liberty over tyranny.
Conservative leaders such as Edmund Burke were troubled by the aroused spirit of reform.
Mary Wollstonecraft was a young writer in London.
One year before de Gouges, Wollstonecraft demanded equal rights for women.
The book was a found ing text of the feminist movement.
The kings and nobles of continental Europe welcomed the revolution in France as a chance to weaken a competing power.
After trying to escape from France, Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette were arrested and returned to Paris.
The arrest of a crowned mon arch was not acceptable to the monarchs of Austria and Prussia.
The Declaration of Pillnitz stated that they were willing to intervene in France to restore Louis XVI's rule.
It was expected to have a negative effect on France.
The heads of Europe made a mistake.
The Legislative Assembly that was convened in October 1791 had completely new delegates and a different character.
The delegates were younger and less cautious than their predecessors.
Since the beginning of the revolution, a political club has drawn men and women to debate the questions of the day.
The Declaration of Pil nitz was met with fury by the Jacobins.
They said that if the kings of Europe were trying to start a war against France, we would start a war of people against them.
France declared war on Francis II in April 1792.
France's crusade against tyranny didn't go well at first.
The French armies broke and fled.
The country was declared in danger by the Legislative Assembly.
The king and his family fled for their lives after a revolutionary crowd attacked the royal palace.
The king was imprisoned and suspended from his functions by the Assembly, which wanted a legislative and constitutional assembly to be elected by male voters.
The second revolution was marked by a rapid radicalization of the Revolution, which was marked by the fal of the monarchy.
France became a republic in September of 1792 when the National Convention replaced the Legislative Assembly.
All of the members of the National Convention were republicans, and most of them belonged to the Jacobin club of Paris.
The group led by Robespierre was moderate and fought for control of the French Danton.
The French National Convention's Louis XVI was accused of being a traitor.
The Girondists accepted his guilt but did not want to put the king's group to death.
The Mountain carried the day and Louis was executed in 1793.
Later that year, Marie Antoinette would be put to death.
Both the Girondists and the Mountain were determined to continue the war.
The Battle of Valmy stopped the Prussians.
The French invaded Savoy, captured Nice, and then moved into the German Rhineland, where they occupied the entire Austrian Netherlands.
French armies of occupation spread revolutionary ideology and received support from some peasants and middle-class people.
The libera tors looked like invaders.
International tensions mounted.
There are groups within France.
Peasants in western France revolted against being drafted into the army, with Brittany emerging as the epicenter of the revolt.
Catholics, royalists, and foreign agents encouraged their rebellion.
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