China developed in relative isolation compared to India and the Middle East.
Communication with West and South Asia was difficult due to high mountains and deserts.
The distances were so great that it did not allow the kind of cross-fertilization that occurred in western Eurasia.
There were no cultural breaks like the rise of the Aryans in India or the Assyrians in Mesopotamia to introduce new peoples and languages.
The impact of early China's relative isolation can be seen in its culture.
China retained a logographic writing system with a symbol for expand our knowledge of each word.
Chinese literature and early China were shaped by this writing system.
This 20-inch-tall bronze head was found among thought but also key social and political processes, such as the nature a large set of sacrificial offer of the ruling class and interactions with non- Chinese.
Chinese history is often discussed in terms of a succession of dynasties.
The Zhou Dynasty was founded by one of their vassal states.
The multistate system was created by the Zhou rulers who set up a feudal governmental structure.
When warfare between the states intensified in the sixth century b.c.e., social and cultural change quickened, and China entered one of its most creative periods, when the philosophies of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism were developed.
The historical China, also called China proper, was smaller than present-day China.
Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Turkestan, Manchuria, and other territories that were not ruled directly by Chinese states were included in the People's Republic of China.
The historical development of the region in which Chinese civilization developed has been influenced by the geography.
China proper is a thousand miles north to south and east to west.
The Yellow and Yangzi River drained regions of Chinese civilization.
Even with simple tools, Chapter Chronology earth is fertile and easy to work on.
The riverbed rises and floods if it is diked.
Evidence of writing can be found in tombs of the warmer, wetter, and more lush south.
The north of Tibet is home to great expanses of desert and cities spread across the central north of the desert grassland.
It is early and the soil was deposited by wind.
The primary Neolithic crops were millet, grown in the loess soils of the north, and rice, grown in the wetlands of the lower reaches of the Yangzi River.
By 3000 b.c.e., pigs, dogs, and cattle were domesticated in both areas.
Silk production can be traced back to this period.
Over the course of the third millennium b.c.e.
The plaque is 2.5 inches by 3.25 inches and was made in 2000 b.c.e.
A human is depicted as a monster mask.
The lower part could be seen as his arms and legs, but at the same time a monster mask with bulging eyes, prominent nostrils, and a large mouth appeared.
Coffins, large num bers of grave goods, and other practices related to treatment of the dead spread to other groups from their original area.
What was the most important after 2000?
Writing, metalworking, and domestication of the horse were included.
The archaeological findings can be linked to the Shang Dynasty.
Large palaces and temples ruled the center of Anyang for more than two centuries.
rammed-earth foundations are a feature of Chinese building practice that will last for centuries.
Outside the central core were industrial areas where bronzeworkers, potters, stone carvers, and other artisans lived and worked.
Many homes were built below the ground to serve heat.
Farming areas and large forests were beyond the urban settlements.
Animals such as deer, bears, tigers, wild boars, elephants, and rhinoceros were plentiful in north China in this era.
Texts found in the royal tombs show that the Shang kings were military commanders.
armies of three thousand to five thousand men were sent by the king.
As vassals became enemies and enemies accepted offers of al iance, the situation constantly changed.
The war captives who could be made into slaves was an important source of revenue for the king.
Slaves might end up as sacrifice victims.
Bronze-tipped weapons were widely used by the Shang warriors.
Around 1200 b.c.e., bronze was used for the fitting of the chari ots.
The chariot technology spread from one society to the next.
The chariot gave commanders with mobile stations from which to supervise their troops, as well as giving archers and soldiers increased mobility.
Military supremacy did not mean the end of shu power.
The king divined his ancestors' wishes by interpreting the cracks made in heated cattle bones or tortoise shells that were prepared for him by professional diviners.