A form of organization that operates the president obeys the law.
He created a commission to investigate the disaster.
The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management were created under the reorganization.
The origins, functions, and realities of the federal bureau cracy are examined in this chapter.
When they emerged from Congress and were signed into law by the president, they could not become achievements without the bureaucracy.
The president, Congress, and the U.S. public are held accountable to governmental departments, agencies, and employees.
The overall process for making public policies and the key questions Congress and the presi dent must answer when they decide to create new programs are examined.
The departments of government would need talented employees if they were to succeed.
Although these words are often used as a way to criticize government, a bureaucracy is simply a form of organization that delivers goods and services at the lowest cost through specialization of jobs, close supervision of employees, and clear rules for making decisions.
The federal bureaucracy is supposed to faithfully execute the laws on behalf of the president, Congress, and the judiciary.
Congress can't create executive branch jobs for its members.
Congress has the power to create new departments and agencies through legislation signed by the president, as well as to determine the number of federal employees, the budgets they administer, and the taxes they collect.
When the laws are passed, employees are hired and budgets and taxes are set.
The president is responsible for making sure the laws are followed.
The federal government's mission grew and so did its bureaucracy.
By 2012 the fed in detail was composed of 15 departments, 50 lesser agencies and the U.S.
He argued for an expansion of Service and the three branches of the armed services.
One of the largest workforces in the world is employed by it.
More than 2.2 million full-time federal employees and over one million military personnel worked for the federal government in 2012.
Figure 12.1 shows estimates of the number hierarchy.
A government agency.
The word "independent" is used to differentiate between agencies that are outside of a department and those that are inside.
We will discuss the different types of federal organizations next.
The most visible organizations in the federal government are the departments.
Secretaries head 14 of the action and flexibility for a particular department, while the attorney general leads the Department of Justice.
The Department of Veterans Affairs helps veterans return to civilian life after military service, the Department of Homeland Security protects the nation from terrorism, and the Department of Defense manages the armed services.
When an emergency arises or a key policy issue is under review by Congress or the judiciary, presidents rarely meet with the secretaries of the outer cabinet.
One of three diff erent approaches was used to create 15 federal departments.
There is a merger of existing agencies into a new one.
In 2003 Congress merged 22 separate agencies and their 170,000 employees into the Department of Homeland Security.
The break-up of an existing department into two or more new departments is the second approach.
Congress split the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare into two departments in 1979.
The elevation of an independent stand-alone agency to department-level status is the third approach.
The new Department of Veterans Affairs was elevated to cabinet status in 1988.
It means the agency is outside the president's control.
It means separate from a traditional department in an agency of government.
Independent agencies report to the president.
Independent stand-alone agencies work on specifi c problems.
Being an agency is the first step towards becoming a department.
The Veterans Administration was created in 1930 and became a department in 1989.
The second most senior title in the federal bureaucracy is usually the administrator or director of an independent stand-alone agency.
The spread of stand-alone agencies can make it difficult to know who is in charge of the federal government.
The CIA, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the FBI, and the National Security Agency are some of the diff erent intelligence agencies in the federal government.
The Director of National Intelligence was created by Congress in 2004.
Both Congress and the president have a measure of independence for independent regulators.
These commissions are headed by a small number of people who are appointed by the president for fixed terms of office.
Unlike other presidential appointees, commissioners cannot be removed from office without cause, which means ineffi ciency, neglect of duty, or unethical behavior.
Independent regulatory commission are usually insulated from political pressure.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Election Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Trade Commission are just a few of the independent regulatory commissions that Congress has created.
The regulatory commission is not completely independent.
The annual budgets of the president and Congress are subject to judicial review.
Commissions can be highly political if the president nominates them on the basis of party loyalty.
Until a crisis occurs, independent regulatory commissions are less visible than departments.
In the aftermath of the 2008 economic collapse, Goldman Sachs came under fire for its behavior.
It was accused of betting against investment packages that it sold to clients, which allowed it to make money.
Congress began investigating the lack of federal oversight of the action in 2010, but the firm had not been punished for its behavior.
The SEC was created in the 1930s to restore investor confidence in the stock market after the Great Depression, but it was accused of being negligent in monitoring accounting practices at large companies such as WorldCom in the early 2000s.
In the federal bureaucracy, government corporations are the least understood.
They have more freedom from the internal regulations that control traditional agencies because they are intended to act more like businesses.
Public radio and television, mail delivery, and other policy issues are covered by government corporations.
The Postal Service, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, and the Corporation for National and Community Service are some of the fi nancial enterprises that make loans to banks and other institutions.
The federal civilian workforce consists of three different types of employees: presidential appointees who run the bureaucracy, members of the Senior Executive Service who help translate policy into action, and members of the civil service who implement policy.
Roughly 3,000 presidential appointees head federal departments and agencies, and another 2,400 who serve at the pleasure of the president, which means they are appointed by the president without Senate confirmation.
Presidential appointees usually leave their posts at the end of the president's term.
Roughly two-thirds of the appointments made by the president are on a non political basis.
Women and minorities of its employees were all white and the majority of them were employed in the top jobs.
44 percent of women are moving into the top jobs at a fast rate.
The number of women and minorities in government jobs increased between 1994 and 2011.
Increasing diversity can improve the Urban Development and Veterans Affairs.
There are far fewer women employees in the transportation sector.
The Director of the U.S. Offi ce of Personnel Management sent a message.
A system of public employment based would need employees and many of them would choose government for their career and party loyalty.
Favors are given to the party in power.
Jackson believed that every job in government could be used to hire his political allies.
Ninety percent of federal employees are selected based on merit.
Most of the time, the rest are selected through hiring systems that emphasize a special skill rather than political patronage.
An independent agency that protects merit in the federal government must keep careful records of each candidate.
Many federal jobs have a test to prove the merit of their choice.
Unlike unions in the private sector, federal employee unions don't have the right to strike and can't bargain over pay.
They can try to negotiate better personnel policies and practices for federal workers, they can represent federal employees at grievances, and they can lobby Congress on measures to change personnel policies.
In elections, the ey can vote.
Federal employees are subject to tight regulation because they administer so many laws that can affect election outcomes.
Federal civil servants were not allowed to raise money for candidates, wear campaign buttons, or put "vote-for" signs on their lawns under the original act.
They were not allowed to run for political office.
Thousands of federal employees are represented by the National Treasury Employees Union.
It started out as a union for Treasury Department employees.
In 1993 the act was enacted to allow more political participation.
Many restrictions on federal employees were contained in the new Hatch Act.
A statement of how a law is implemented by the Internal Revenue Service.
The process for drafting is detailed.
The Hatch Act's rules against campaign activity were clearly violated by the messages.
Depending on past performance and congressional politics, freedom varies from agency to agency.
According to political scientist Th eodore Lowi, Congress often gives the federal bureaucracy vague directions because it is unable or unwilling to make the tough choices needed to resolve confl icts that arise in the legislative process.
The federal workforce gets the challenge of implementing a law, but Congress gets the credit for passing it.
Policies can be converted into action by the use of regulations.
The regulations tell citizens, corporations, and government what they can and cannot do.
The number is based on the length of the federal register.
The Administrative Procedure Act of 1946, which regulates the bureaucracy in the U.S., is considered to be one of the most important laws.
During the notice and comment period, all parties are encouraged to make their opinions known to the agency.
The process can take years from start to finish and consume thousands of pages of records.
Some agencies hold hearings and take testimony from witnesses to build a strong case for a controversial rule.
The rule-making process doesn't end with publication and enforcement.
All regulations are subject to the same judicial review that governs formal laws, which creates a check against potential abuse of power when agencies exceed their authority to faithfully execute the laws.
The number of pages in the Federal Register has increased since the 1930s.
Individual and corporate income taxes, payroll taxes for Social Security, Medicare, disability programs, and unemployment insurance are all collected by the federal bureaucracy.
The majority of federal tax is collected by the Internal Revenue Service.
The federal government gets the largest share of its tax revenue from taxes on individuals.
The income tax was not allowed under the Constitution until 1913.
The second largest source of federal revenue is payroll taxes to pay for social insurance.
Workers pay more in Social Security taxes than in federal income taxes.
During World War II, corporate income taxes were two-fifths of all federal revenues.
Due to tax cuts and special deductions, they only account for one-tenth of federal revenues.
Unemployment insurance, disaster relief, or disability payments provide benefits to all eligible citizens.
Federal excise taxes on the sale of liquor, tobacco, gasoline, telephones, air travel, and other so-called luxury items make up a small percentage of the federal budget.
T-bills provide relatively small amounts of interest to the citizens, investment companies, banks, and even foreign nations that buy them, so the federal government can borrow money by selling them.
Half of the federal government's debt is owned by foreign nations.
The federal government borrows money in the short term, but must repay the buyer when the notes come due.
Federal bureaucracy also implements policy by spending money, whether it's writing checks to millions of Social Security recipients, buying billions of dollars' worth of military equipment, or making grants to state governments and research universities.
Between 1962 and 2012 Social Security and Medicare spending increased as the federal government increased benefi ts for older Americans.
More than half of all federal spending will be accounted for by the two programs.
The discretionary budget includes spending for programs such as health research, highway construction, student loans, and defense, all of which are subject to yearly increases or cuts by Congress and the president.
Assess presidential and congressional tools for controlling the federal bureaucracy is a legislative or executive review of a particular government program.
Legislation was drafted by the paigns and bureaucratic reform was a central part of the presidential reports.
Modern presidents want to be in charge of federal employees because the chief executive is responsive to the broadest constituency.
The Constitution clearly states that presidents are responsible for faithfully executing the laws, which they interpret as full control over the basic decisions of government organizations.
The party that wins the presi dency does not have total control of the national government under the system of checks and balances.
Presidents have little control over an ongoing system in which they have little wiggle room to make the bureaucracy responsive.
Presidents can control the bureaucracy through their powers of appointment, reorganization, and budgeting.
Presidents can try to control the federal system by appointing sympathetic personnel, mobilizing public opinion and congressional pressure, changing the administrative apparatus, using extensive personal persuasion, and if all else fails, shifting an agency's assignment to another department or agency.
Congress has strong control over the bureaucracy, whether by establishing agencies, formulating budgets, appropriating funds, confi rming personnel, authorizing new programs or changing direction.
As they battle federal red tape, much of this authority is used to help.
Members of Congress are given political credit for their work.
They can put loyal aides into the top jobs at key agencies, they can direct White House aides to oversee the work of certain agencies, and they can always call cabinet meetings to learn more about what is happening in the various departments.
Most of the time, presidents use the OMB for routine oversight.
Before testifying before Congress on pending legislation, making legislative proposals, or answering congressional inquiries, departments and agencies must get the president's approval.
Most members and committees use the Government Accountability Offi ce or the Congressional Budget Offi ce to conduct a study or investigation.
The police patrol oversight is where the two branches watch the bureaucracy through a routine pattern.
Look at the budget, read key reports, and generally pay attention to the way departments and agencies are running.
The goal is to deter problems before they occur.
In "fi re alarm" oversight, the two branches wait for citizens, interest groups, or the press to have a major problem and pull the alarm.
They often uncover a scandal before a police patrol reveals an urgent problem because of the information act.
Most Americans are reluctant to support cutbacks in what government does.
They wonder what can be done to improve the bureaucracy's performance, especially in the wake of recent breakdowns in important programs, such as the Gulf Oil spill, and the failure to detect the Christmas Day bombing plot.
The federal bureaucracy is not a wasteland of failure.
The federal government does impossible things every day.
Reducing diseases, building a strong national defense, and increasing access to education are some of the things the federal bureaucracy has accomplished.
There is cause for complaint.
The bureaucracy's missions are important, but its organizations are dense with layer upon layer of management and red tape, its personnel systems are out of date, and many civil servants believe their pay and promotions are based more on favoritism than performance.
The Commerce Department regulates salmon when they are in salt water, while the Interior Department regulates salmon when they are in fresh water.
"I hear it gets more complicated once they're smoked," Obama said.
The number of government employees has fallen due to a reduction in the number of military personnel.
Since the 1980s, the number of civilians employed by the government has declined.
Even though the size of government has grown smaller, its spending has increased to the point that one-fourth of the U.S.
Consumption with income borrowing instead of taxation is 16%.
The main difference in the size of the country's gross domestic product is the federal government's share of government.
Increased spending to pay for past debt drives up costs.
The Obama administration has yet to make any changes to the bureaucracy.
The public has serious doubts about the federal bureaucracy's performance.
In the past 10 years, public confi dence in the executive branch of government has generally declined, although it did jump after Obama's inauguration in 2009.
Improving public confi dence in the bureaucracy depends on the public.
Citizens can make a difference in shaping regulations, monitoring bureaucratic performance, and prompting Congress and the president to adopt needed reforms to prevent government breakdowns.
Citizens can support the many interest groups that lobby for good government by visiting government Web sites and collecting information.
There are three types of public policy.
Government sets public policy through laws, judicial decisions, and more detailed regulations.
Congress and the president pass laws, while the bureaucracy puts them into practice.
The bureaucracy is releasing massive amounts of informa stories as a form of "crowd-sourced" that enrich its tion to citizens according to ProPublica.
Informa can monitor the government.
The concept of the distributed public policy is no longer too little public information, but Reporting Network give citizens a voice in, but perhaps too much.
Which citizens are most likely to share their stories with ProPublica, and how can crowd-sourced citizens join its network?
The interaction of the people and public policy are some of the things we will start with.
We will look at the process for making public their government.
Laws need to be converted into action.
Interest groups, political parties, and the institutions of government make laws in American life.
Whatever its form, a public policy tells the nation and the world who gets what, when, where, and how from the federal government.
Policy is a formal actual choices to create a public policy if politics is a question.
People are rarely considered to be policy makers.
Social Security public policies have different impact on society.
Some public policies provide benefits to all groups of citizens, while others take something away from society.
Three types of public policy are created by the choices.
Federal policies that take resources away from one or more groups in society or money from one group to give to another group is usually done through taxes.
The less fortunate can benefit from such programs.
It is a form of the policy process when a decision not to move ahead with Security is made.
When benefi ts are cut it becomes a reverse distributive policy decision not to decide.
Electric cars reduce the nation's need for oil but increase the demand for electricity produced by coal-fi red plants.
Similarly, new restrictions on carbon emissions from power plants approved in 2012 reduce global warming but also increase the cost of electricity and may even weaken the economy.
Take a look at the different types of policy.
The process can be seen as a staircase that moves upward.
Policy makers can run out of energy at certain times.
The Bush administration had long argued that global warming was not a national threat, but the Obama administration moved quickly to push for stricter limits on carbon emissions.
Making assumptions about the problem at the beginning, setting the agenda of problems to be addressed, deciding how much to do, choosing a solution to the problem, and deciding who will deliver the goods or services are all part of the public policy process.
The choice to move for ward is the most diffi cult due to the complexity of passing a bill, issuing an executive order, or making a Supreme Court decision.
A decision can be made at any time.
There is a tool for 8.
The policy process in the world is the same.
Most policies are the result of making assumptions, setting the agenda, deciding to act, and so forth.
Some nations give their citizens diff erent levels of infi ciency in making policy decisions.
Policy decisions in Great Britain are shaped by a tight bond between the administrative agencies of government and Parliament.
The agenda is never set until a decision has been made.
The bureaucracy is involved in policy making in nondemocratic countries.
There is no meaningful role for the people in these nations.
Government decisions start with assumptions about the future.
The costs of supporting the unemployed will go down if employment goes up.
Maybe the federal government needs to inspect more cargo ships in order to find bombs and other threats.
Questions about the future shape decisions about what the federal government might do.
One senior Reagan administration official once remarked, "I'm beginning to believe that history is a lot shakier than I thought it was."
The economy can change very quickly, which can increase joblessness overnight, which can put more pressure on the social safety net, and so on.
When the mortgage market collapsed in the wake of billions of dollars of bad loans, many experts were completely surprised.
It wasn't predicted that it could happen.
Liberty, equality, individualism, and respect for the common person are some of the broad social goals embraced by the people and their government.
Views about the individual's ability to determine life's success have an impor tant role in shaping public policies designed to help the poor.
According to the survey, there is a lot of variation in the belief that hard work pays off.
The citizens of Russia and Japan were the least hopeful that hard work would pay off because of the long periods of economic distress they have experienced.
Government policy is affected by these views, including support for education, job training, and help for the poor.
Citizens' views of the government's role in regulating the economy are shaped by these views.
People who believe in hard work are more likely to believe that people are better off in a free market economy than people who don't believe in hard work.
Everyone wants the American dream, but we often disagree on how to get it.
Politics is about the rise and fall of these ideologies through elections, party pressure, interest group pressure, and a variety of other political expressions.
Problems are different from politics and can be found in a variety of sources.
Smoking, drilling accidents, Hurricane damage, car safety, and government fraud are some of the issues that emerged from congressional investigations.
There are other possible problems that are being monitored.
The movement of public opinion can be seen from the beginning of an economic downturn or an improving economy.
The public's attention span can be very short.
The global warming debate cooled off after the economy collapsed and Americans were faced with a tradeoff between jobs and environmental protection.
Policy makers use many of the same criteria to set the agenda as they do for other political decisions.
They have come to rely on a small number of think tanks to sort through the stream of possible problems.
They can be closer to the national political process if they are located in Washington, D.C. A think tank is almost entirely devoted to the immediate agenda, unlike a college or university.
The fact that a problem exists doesn't mean that Congress, the president, or the courts will try to solve it.
Some problems help policy makers achieve their personal or political goals, such as reelection or a place in history, in which case they decide to act, whereas others do not, in which case they pick other problems to solve.
Although they are largely hidden from view, they are the most important step in the policy process.
Policy makers know that public pressure for action ebbs over time.
Public concern about the issue has gone up and down over the years, with competing concerns about the economy and doubts about specifi c solutions.
The economy is one of a number of factors that affect the issue-attention cycle.
When the economy is in trouble, citizens want the government to act.
Although global warming is still an important issue for most Americans, it has been sliding over the past few years, suggesting that the issue-attention cycle is at work.
Downs described the "pre-problem stage" as the rise of some "highly undesirable social condition" such as global warming that has yet to capture public attention.
The search engine at http://www.polling-report.com has polls on environmental protection.
"Alarmed discovery and euphorichu siasm," the sudden emergence of an issue as a topic for public debate, continues the issue-attention cycle.
The sudden passion that causes public concern is what leads to the creation of books, documentaries, speeches, and campaigns.
With the realization that change will cost, the cycle moves onward.
It's one thing to worry about greenhouse gases and another to pay more for clean electricity or buy smaller, more effi cient cars.
Having pressed hard for action on an issue such as universal health insurance, the public may begin to realize that change is nearly impossible given the array of political forces.
The decline of public interest is not inevitable.
If citizens expect problems to be solved quickly, they will be disappointed.
We must acquire enough understanding of the problem and the policy process to stay actively engaged for the long term, even though issues such as global warming seem to demand that we take immediate action before the damage is beyond repair.
The government can either launch a comprehensive program such as Social Security or expand a smaller program bit by bit over time.
Increasing the amount of federal support for colleges by a few hundred dollars is an example of anIncremental policy.
The most frequent response to calls for change isIncremental policy.
An iron triangle consists of a federal department or agency, a set of loyal interest groups, and a House and/or Senate committee.
The other two are supported by each side.
Congress protects or increases the agency's budget, allowing it to support the interest groups, and give benefi ts for its members.