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17 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds -- Part 20
Like the azide ion, cyanide ion is crash and the electronic controller fires a good SN2 nucleophile.
Azide has no tendency to react further.
The reduction of nitriles to primary amines is done by the production of nitrogen gas.
Amine has an additional carbon atom when the C, N group is added and reduced.
The starting material has one less carbon atom because of the cyanide synthesis.
We saw that cyanide ion adds to the aldehydes and ketones that make up cyanohydrins.
The N group of the cyanohydrin has a way to synthesise b@hydroxy amines.
The following synthetic conversions would be accomplished by showing how you would accomplish them.
The amine forms the azide and reduce.
Both aromatic and aliphatic groups can be reduced.
The most common methods are hydrogenation and acidic reduction.
LiAlH4 may be used.
Sub stituted anilines are the most common reason for reducing aromatic nitro compounds.
The dye industry uses aniline derivatives to make aniline dyes.
A nitro compound is reduced to the aromatic amine when an aromatic ring is nitrated.
Reduction followed by nitration is used in the synthesis of benzocaine.
The stable nitro group is retained through oxidation and esterification.
The oxidation step reduced the amine, which could not survive the final step.
An amide is given by acylation of an amine.
A method for making amines by acylating ammonia or amine.
A ammonia with one or more alkyl or aryl groups bonds to the nitrogen atom.
The nitrogen atom has a positive charge and the oxygen atom has a negative charge in amine oxide.
An amine is formed by an acid.
A tertiary amine oxide eliminates to an alkene with a hydroxylamine serving as the leaving group in a variation of the Hofmann elimination.
A diazonium salt is formed by the reaction of a primary amine with nitrous acid.
An excess of an alkylating agent is used to form the quaternary ammonium salt.
The amine is displacement by hydrazine after the amine is alkylated.
The leaving group had a quaternary amine.
The least-substituted alkene is usually given by the Hofmann elimination.
A hydroxy group is one of the three substituents of the compound H2NOH.
N " O" bonds to the amine nitrogen atom.
Problem numbers are followed by each skill in the chapter.
Determine the structures with the help of the IR, NMR, and mass spectrum of amines.
Explain how their Problems 19-33, 34, 35, 37, 60, basicity varies with hybridization and aromaticity, and compare the basicity of amines with other bases.
Compare the physical properties of amines with those of their salts.
Predict the products of reactions of amines with aldehydes, alkyl halides and tosylates, acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, nitrous acid, and agents.
Give examples of the use of arenediazonium ion salts in the synthesis of phenols and aryl chlorides.
Predict the major products andIllustrate the uses and mechanisms of the eliminations.
Show how to use amines as starting materials and intermediates in multistep synthesis.
In order to increase basicity, rank the amine in each set.
By increasing basicity, you can rank the nitrogens within each structure.
Pick the stronger base in each pair of compounds.
Predict whether the reactants or products are favored by completing the following proposed acid-base reactions.
The following compounds can be converted to H2N using any necessary reagents.
The base peak's cleavage is shown in a diagram.
Why isn't a molecule visible in this spectrum?
Show how you would accomplish the following things.
The following drugs are made using the methods in this chapter.
Start with compounds with no more than six carbon atoms.
It is used in pain-relief drugs.
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