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11.3 Pressure

- The equation for gives is solved.

- The table has a density of water.

- There is a large amount of water.
- In this example, the weight of the water is where the Earth's gravity is.
- It's reasonable to ask if the dam can provide a force equal to the weight.
- The answer is no.
- The force of the dam can be smaller than the weight of the water it holds back.

- The world's largest hydroelectric plant was completed in 2008, generating power equivalent to 22 average-sized nuclear power plants.
- The concrete dam is 2.3 km across.
- This dam has a 660 km long reservoir.
- More than one million people were displaced by the creation of the dam.

- There are many examples of pressures in fluids.

- There is a force applied to an area.

- There are many other units for pressure that are used in the same way.

- millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) is used in the measurement of blood pressure, while pounds per square inch is used as a measure of tire pressure.
- When discussing fluids, pressure is important.

- The International Space Station has no atmospheric pressure.
- Her air tank has a pressure gauge.

- If we find the area acted upon, we can find the force exerted from the definition of pressure.

- The area of the end of the cylinder is given.

- The tank must be strong.
- The force exerted by a pressure is proportional to the area acted upon as well as the pressure itself.

- The end of the tank exerts force on its inside surface.
- The force is exerted by a static or stationary fluid.
- We have already seen that fluids can't exert shearing forces.
- The fluid pressure is a quantity.
- The forces due to pressure are always in a straight line.

- Swimmers and the tire feel the pressure.

- The tire's pressure exerts forces on all the surfaces it contacts.
- The directions and magnitudes of the forces are given by the arrows.
- Shearing forces do not exert static fluids.

- The swimmer is under pressure since the water would flow into the space he occupies if he were not there.

- The forces on the swimmer are represented by the arrows.
- The forces underneath are larger due to greater depth, giving a net upward force that is balanced by the swimmer's weight.

- As you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more, you can see what happens when you put gas in a box.
- The properties of the gas vary in relation to each other, if you measure the temperature and pressure.

- If you've ever been on a plane or in a swimming pool, you've experienced the effect of depth on pressure in a fluid.
- The weight of air above you exerts air pressure on you at the Earth's surface.

- The weight of air above you decreases as you climb up in altitude.
- With increasing depth, the pressure on you increases.
- The pressure on you is caused by the weight of water above you and the atmosphere above you.
- If you notice an air pressure change on an elevator ride that transports you many stories, but you only need to dive a meter below the surface to feel a pressure increase, you're in good shape.
- Water is much denser than air.

- The weight of the fluid is supported by its bottom.
- The pressure on the bottom is determined by the weight of the fluid.

- The dimensions of the container are related to the volume of the fluid.

- The pressure is the weight of the fluid.
- The equation has general validity beyond the special conditions.
- The surrounding fluid kept the fluid static even if the container weren't there.
- The equation shows the pressure due to the weight of the fluid at any depth below its surface.
- This equation holds great depths for liquids, which are nearly incompressible.
- One can apply this equation if the density changes are small over the depth considered.

- The weight of the fluid is supported by the bottom of the container.
- The bottom must support the fluid since the vertical sides can't exert an upward force.

- Pressure and force will be considered on the dam retaining water.
- The water is 80.0 m deep at the dam, which is 500 m wide.

- The pressure at the average depth of 40.0 m is the average due to the weight of the water.

- The value has already been found.

- The force is small compared to the weight of the water in the dam.
- It depends on the average depth of the dam and the width and length of the lake.
- The force is dependent on the water's average depth and the dimensions of the dam.
- In the diagram, the thickness of the dam increases with depth to balance the increasing force due to the increasing pressure.

- The dam must be able to hold onto the water.
- The force is small compared to the water behind the dam.

- The weight of air above a given height is what causes atmospheric pressure.
- The atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface varies a little due to the large-scale flow of the atmosphere.

- The average weight of a column of air above the Earth's surface is equivalent to.

- The average density of the atmosphere is 120 km.
- Compare this density with the air listed in the table.

- We have to be atmospheric pressure, given, and known, and so we can use this to calculate.

- The average density of air between the Earth's surface and the top of the Earth's atmosphere is 120 km.
- Table 11.1 shows the density of air at sea level.
- The density of air is the highest near the Earth's surface and plummets with altitude.

- The pressure of the water is equal to 1.00 atm.

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