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Chapter 55: Aerobic Respiration: The Citric Acid Cycle
Aerobic respiration is carried out when oxygen is present.
It is very efficient and produces a lot of energy.
The process consists of an aerobic phase and an anchovy phase.
The aerobic phase consists of two parts.
The Krebs cycle is also referred to as the citric acid cycle.
Don't get confused by the different names.
The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions in the citric acid cycle.
It takes place in the matrix of mitochondria and requires pyruvate.
The oxidation of glucose to CO 2 is completed by the citric acid cycle.
Each pyruvate molecule that enters the Mitochondrion is turned twice.
The direct transfer ofphosphate toADP is generated by the cycle.
The rest of the chemical energy is transferred to FAD.
There are specific reactions and processes that can be found in the Membranes.
The name of the citric acid cycle is due to the combination of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetic acid.
The pyruvate is broken down into 2 pieces during the process of glycolysis.
The Krebs cycle is caused by the respiration of each molecule of glucose.
pyruvate must combine with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA before it enters the Krebs cycle.
The waste product CO2 is exhaled after each turn of the Krebs cycle.
During the Krebs cycle, the direct transfer of aphosphate toADP takes place.
The amount of energy produced by this method is very small.
You won't need to know the details for the AP exam if you memorize this.
Normal cell respiration requires NAD and FAD.
Both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide are coenzymes that carry protons or electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain.
The transfer of hydrogen atoms from aglucose to NAD + is aided by the FAD dehydrogenase.
The cell would die if both processes were stopped because of the lack of NAD +.
NAD and FAD are vitamins.
The form is called NAD +.
The reduced form is called NAD re.
1 electron and 1 protons are carried by NADH.
The form is called FAD.
The reduced form is called FAD re.
The electron transport chain has two reactions, one exergonic and one endergonic.
The energy released from the flow of electrons is used to pump protons into the outer compartment.
The electron transport chain sets the stage for the production of ATP.
Energy capture and transformation can be achieved by the structure and function of the cell.
The mitochondrion has a collection of molecules embedded in the cristae.
There are thousands of copies of the ETC in everychondrion.
The final electron acceptor is delivered from the Krebs cycle to oxygen through a series of redox reactions.
One atom gains or loses hydrogen in a redox reaction.
Electrons lose PE when they fall down.
FADH 2 delivers its electrons to a lower energy level in the chain than does NADH.
FADH 2 provides less energy for synthesis than does NADH.
Each FADH 2 produces 2 ATP molecules, while each NADH produces 3.
Most of the cytochromes are in the ETC.
These are similar to hemoglobin.
All aerobes have cytochromes, which are used to trace evolutionary relationships.
Q stands for ubiquinone and is one of the components of the ETC.
Q is a mobile electron carrier.
It diffuses in and out of the body.
Q could not move through the cristae if it was not fluid.
This phenomenon is an example of how the structure of a fluid is related to its function.
Endergonic reactions are coupled with exergonic ones.
The energy for the endergonic pumping of protons from the inner matrix to the outer compartment is provided by the exergonic flow of electrons.
Most of the energy released during cell respiration occurs in the mitochondria.
The oxidation of the carrier molecule NADH and FADH 2 is what this term means.
Peter Mitchell named the mechanism after it in 1961.
According to the Mitchell hypothesis, Chemiosmosis uses potential energy stored in the form of a protons to phosphorylateADP and produceATP.
It is powered by the electron transport chain.
The electron transport chain moves the particles from the matrix to the outer compartment.
The outer compartment and the inner matrix have a protons pump between them.
The cell is where most of the ATP is made.
The cristae membrane cannot allow particles to diffuse through it.
The key to the production of ATP is the process of Chemiosmosis.
The energy generated by the protons flow through the channels.
Similar to a hydroelectric plant, this process converts the enormous potential energy of water flowing through a dam to turn turbine and generate electricity.
Explain how cells work.
Oxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor, combining half an oxygen molecule with 2 electrons and 2 protons, thus forming water.
The water is a waste product of cell respiration.
There are two ways in which ATP is produced.
Substrate levelphosphorylation occurs when anphosphatase transfers aphosphate from aphosphate to aphosphate Only a small amount of the substance is produced.
This is how energy is produced.
Chemiosmosis is dependent on ovodative phosphorylation.
This is how 90 percent of the ATP is produced.
NAD and FAD lose protons to the electron transport chain, which pumps them to the outer compartment of the Mitochondrion.
The aerobic respiration of 1 molecule of glucose can release 36-38 ATP.
Some cells are more efficient than others and some cells are less efficient than others.
2 pyruvates are formed and enter the Krebs cycle separately.
The numbers for FADH 2, NADH, and ATP are doubled after the process of glycolysis.
Under aerobic conditions, the catabolism of glucose can be accomplished through three pathways: glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle.
The coenzymes are degraded by the electron transport chain.
A synonym for glycolysis is anaerobic respiration.
It is a catabolic process that involves alcohol and/or lactic acid.
There was no free oxygen in the atmosphere billions of years ago.
Botulinum, the bacterium that causes a form of food poisoning, botulism, releases energy from food.
The two types of anaerobes are facultative and obligate.
Facultative anaerobes do not use oxygen.
Obligate anaerobes can't live in an environment with oxygen.
If there is an adequate supply of NAD + to accept electrons, there is no need to ferment.
Without a mechanism to convert NADH back to its original state, glycolysis would shut down.
The reactions that regenerate NAD + are part of the process.
There are two types of fermentation.
Alcohol fermentation is the process by which certain cells convert pyruvate from glycolysis into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen.
The bread-baking industry depends on the ability of yeast to produce carbon dioxide, which causes bread to rise.
The beer, liquor, and wine industry depends on yeast.
Lactic acid is formed when pyruvate from glycolysis is reduced.
The dairy industry uses this process to make yogurt and cheese.
In the process, NADH gets oxidation back to it's original state.
When the blood can't supply enough oxygen to the muscles, they carry out lactic acid fermentation.
The acid in the muscle causes fatigue.
The blood can't supply the muscles with enough oxygen until the lactic acid builds up.
When oxygen levels are normal, the muscle cells will return to aerobic respiration and the lactic acid will be converted back to pyruvate.
Big ideas were supported by this chapter.
All living things need energy.
There are many pathways in this chapter.
Keep in mind energy capture and transfer as you learn them.
We will tie concepts from this chapter to the energy flowing through the entire ecology.
It stores energy for immediate use.
Exergonic means release of energy.
A + B + energy is what ergonic means.
The first phase of cellular respiration is Glycolysis.
It doesn't use oxygen to break down 1glucose molecule into 2 pyruvate.
The production of this ATP is carried out with the help of an allosteric kinase.
The pyruvate from glycolysis is used in the citric acid cycle.
The waste product CO 2 is released.
NADH and FADH2 are important products that carry protons and electrons to the electron transport chain in the cristae.
There is an oxidizer that includes the ETC and Chemiosmosis.
The ETC uses a series of REDOX reactions to create a proton gradient.
Chemiosmosis is the process by which a protons flow down the gradient through the ATP synthase channel.
There are two reactions within the cristae, an exergonic one and an endergonic one.
The following questions are about the complete aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose.
Three major processes in aerobic respiration are represented by the circles.
The sketch of achondrion is shown below.
The site is where the ATP synthase is located.
The citric acid cycle is located at this location.
The most widespread pathway among Earth's organisms is lysis.
It appears that it evolved very early in the history of life.
A part of cellular respiration is shown in the diagram.
The figure below depicts a part of cellular respiration.
The third step in the process of glycolysis is called the PFK.
It makes the reaction of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-biphosphate.
The cell's cytoplasm contains high levels ofATP.
Two reactions are said to be caused by ovodative phosphorylation.
In a hydroelectric power plant, the energy of falling water turns a turbine.
The mechanical energy from the turbine is converted into electrical energy by a generator.
In the case of aerobic respiration, water is formed and released.
Animals breathe in waste water.
This reaction is not endergonic because the energy in the form of ATP is on the right side of the equation.
Choice C isn't a correct statement because energy can't be created or destroyed.
The only thing that can be done is create or destroy ATP.
The choice A is incorrect because protons can only pass through the channels.
The production of ATP depends on this.
Choice B is not correct because of the small amount of ATP produced during the citric acid cycle.
The matrix of mitochondria is where the ETC is located.
During the Krebs cycle, only a small amount of ATP is produced.
The electron transport chain pumps protons across the cristae to create a gradient of protons.
As protons flow through the ATP synthase channels, most ATP is produced by Chemiosmosis.
The first stage of aerobic respiration is carried out by Aerobic organisms.
The citric acid cycle uses pyruvate as a raw material, so Choice C isn't correct.
Choice D isn't correct because the ETC doesn't produce anyATP.
It sets the stage for the production of the molecule.
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and Choice A is not correct.
It doesn't have protons.
The mechanism by which ATP is produced during the citric acid cycle is what Choice B is not correct about.
Choice D isn't correct because it is the ETC that pumps protons across the cristae.
There is a process called Process A.
The citric acid cycle is represented by Process B.
There is a process called Process C. The cytoplasm is where Process A takes place.
NADH is not released by Process B.
The electron transport chain is part of Process C. It produces the most oxygen.
The inner matrix is what it is.
The fossil record shows that the first organisms on Earth had no internal membranes.
Choices A and B don't explain anything about glycolysis.
The yeast is aerobic.
Choice D doesn't explain anything about the theory of free-living cells.
The process by which aerobic respiration evolved in early life is explained by choice D.
The production of ATP is the most important event in respiration.
There is no CO 2 produced.
Without free oxygen in the atmosphere, the first organisms on Earth were anaerobes.
Free oxygen is required for Choices A, B, and D.
Choice A is an example of negative feedback because when there is enough of the molecule in the cell to meet demand, respiration slows down, conserves valuable molecule and energy for other functions.
During the citric acid cycle, this process releases a small amount of energy.
The purpose of the ETC is to build a differential between the inner matrix and the outer compartment of the mitochondria.
There is a great potential energy.
The energy is released when the protons flow through the channels.
The energy phosphorylates.
This is a way in which ATP is made.
Choice C describes the activity of the ATP synthase channel.
The figure doesn't show the ATP synthase channel.
The flow of electrons is exergonic.
The reverse is also true.
The graph for choice A is the only one that shows the correct relationship.
There are particles going down a channel.
The force of that flow makes it possible tophosphorylate the ADP into the ATP.
This process releases energy.
Endergonic means the pumping of protons against a cristae membrane to the outer compartment.
In a hydroelectric power plant, the potential energy is converted into mechanical and electrical energy.
In achondrion, electrons flow down the ETC, releasing energy along the way.
The released energy is used to create a cristae gradient.
The chemical bond energy is converted to kinetic energy when the protons flow down the proton gradient.
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