There are more than 2,000 television stations, 1,400 daily newspapers, and more than 13,000 radio stations in the United States.
There are 20 major television networks, as well as an extensive system of public television and radio stations.
New networks devoted to news have emerged as a result of the media environment since the 1980s.
During the first Gulf War in 1991, CNN provided live coverage of American bombing raids on Baghdad after the major networks' correspondents had fled to bomb shelters.
Fox News was a competitor in the 2000s.
By 2004, Fox News had overtaken CNN as the nation's primary cable news source, and by the following year it was the second highest rated cable news channel.
The rise of Fox News has had important political implications because its coverage and commentators are considerably more conservative than CNN's.
Fox News has more and varied news sources.
Each is likely to appeal to the same broad national audience and maintain a middle-of-the-road stance when there are few sources.
When there are more sources, each is likely to position itself within an ideological or partisan niche, increasing the diversity of viewpoints presented.
There is a concern that these trends mask the fact that there is a lot of concentration in the industry.
The Associated Press is the only American wire service.
Concerns about the robustness of the marketplace of ideas are raised by the concentration of ownership of media outlets.
A wave of mergers and consolidations has reduced the field of independent media nationwide, as a result of the 1996 Telecommunications Act.
ABC, CNN, and NBC have been owned by different companies since that time.
Murdoch owns Fox, as well as radio, television, and newspaper properties around the world.
CBS is a holding of the CBS Corporation.
A relatively small number of giant corporations now control a wide swath of media holdings, including television networks, movie studios, record companies, cable channels and local cable providers.
This development has prompted questions about whether enough competition exists among the media to produce a diverse set of views or whether the United States has become the prisoner of media monopolies.
Only a few wire services and major newspapers have large reporting staffs, and other news outlets rely heavily on these sources.
The FCC announced new rules in 2003 that seemed to pave the way for even more concentration in the media industry.
The rules mandated that the major networks could own stations that reached 45 percent of all viewers, up from 35 percent under the old rules.
The new rules allowed a single company to own multiple television and radio outlets in a single market.
Major media companies welcomed the new rules.
Critics were concerned that a narrower range of views and issues would result.
The new regulations were put on hold by a federal appeals court after disagreements within Congress and a threatened presidential veto.
For the third time in a decade, a proposal to simplify the cross-ownership rules was introduced.
The printed newspaper might not survive the cross-ownership rule.
When it comes to the flow of information in our democracy, the power of institutions and regulations can be seen in the fight over the cross-ownership rule.
Newspapers, magazines, TV and radio stations, books, music, movies, videos, wire services, and photo agencies are included.
The distribution of news over the internet is against the trend of media ownership.
Increased concentration will lead to less variety in the news and fewer voices being heard.
The internet has made it easier for people to find information.
Consumers can get many views on the same event if they use websites that aggregate news from many sources.
People can easily find local information on official websites.
Increased concentration of internet news distribution is an important question.
The power of the search firm is to block certain websites.
The problem arose in China in 2015, when the government forced a subsidiary of Google to censor many websites.
To maintain access to the enormous China market, Google complied, effectively blocking non- Chinese media from those users and blocking Chinese media websites from others, including users in the United States.
There are three major factors that affect the news: journalists, politicians and consumers.
The people who make the news shape it.
It is not possible to expect reporters, editors, and media owners to always set aside their personal biases in the journalism profession.
The objective of the marketplace of ideas is to make a profit.
A fascinating study of Chinese government censorship shows that the government is more likely to censor various forms of collective action than it is to censor criticism of the government.
This has not been the case in the past.
Newspaper publishers used to have a lot of influence over their papers' news content.
Political power was gained through the manipulation of news coverage by publishers.
The United States went to war with Spain in 1898, almost single-handedly, due to the relentless coverage of Spain's alleged brutality in its efforts to suppress a rebellion in Cuba.
Most publishers don't have that kind of power.
The business end dominates the editorial content of the papers.
Today, individual reporters and editors have more sway over what is presented in the news.
They pursue their own interests and professional objectives, including considerations of ratings, career success and professional prestige.
Journalists seek not only to report the news, but also to interpret it.
Their goals affect what is reported and created.
The people who cover the news for national media have a lot of latitude in interpreting the stories.
Some reporters' personal friendship with and respect for Franklin Delano Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy helped generate favorable news coverage.
Many reporters disliked Ronald Reagan because he was often asleep or inattentive when important decisions were made.
There is a possibility that journalism is biased in favor of one set of ideals, which is troubling from the perspective of the marketplace of ideas.
Reporters and editors at major media outlets have found that those who produce the news are overwhelmingly liberal and Democratic.
According to surveys, Democrats and liberals outnumber Republicans and conservatives by about two to one among journalists.
A survey found that 28 percent of journalists identify as Democrats, 7 percent as Republicans, and 50 percent do not identify with any party.
The press gave Barack Obama a different welcome.
The same methodology was used to find that Obama's coverage was more positive.
He received positive coverage in 42 percent of stories, neutral coverage in 38 percent of stories, and negative coverage in 20 percent of stories.
According to an analysis of news coverage of the candidates, Donald Trump received more coverage than any other Republican candidate, while Hillary Clinton and other Democrats received the same amount of coverage.
In the initial contests, Trump received 37 percent of coverage of the Republican primary, compared with Ted Cruz receiving 28 percent and Marco Rubio 25 percent, and the subsequent contests shifted even more substantially toward Trump.
According to a 2005 study, reporters use politically loaded terms when referring to politicians.
Major media outlets slanted their reporting to the left with three important exceptions.
Only PBS, the publicly owned and licensed network, presents balanced reporting of politics, government, and current events.
Before the 1960s, the editorial endorsements and political leanings of the editors of most newspapers were overwhelmingly Republican.
Newspaper endorsements for president, the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House, and statewide offices have generally balanced out between Democrats and Republicans.
In 2000, George W. Bush received a majority of endorsements, but in 2004, John Kerry got a majority of endorsements.
The figures for 2016 were amazing.
Donald Trump got 2 percent of the newspaper endorsements, with the rest going to other candidates.
If there is a political bias to editorials and endorsements, it is toward those already in office.
Most reporters try to give the perspectives of all sides of a controversy.
The ethos of objectivity and fairness seems to be changing.
The professional standards of objectivity are being eroded by two shifts in journalism.
The line between editorializing and reporting in traditional media has been blurred.
Fox News and MSNBC present different versions of the news, with Fox on the right and MSNBC on the left.
Journalists have followed suit.
The battle among cable networks to divide the audience along partisan lines is made by professional journalists.
It is time for traditional journalists, most of whom have a liberal orientation, to take on the challenge from the conservatives directly.
The second shift in journalism may be more far reaching.
The emergence of citizen journalism.
It is now possible for anyone to report on events with the help of technology.
CNN publishes video sent by people at events such as natural disasters, political campaigns, and protests and rebellions.
This could be a threat to traditional journalism, which relies on highly trained professionals.
In order to get instant recordings of events, a newspaper or television station does not need a large bureau, and it is expensive to keep journalists on staff and send them to places such as China or Iraq.
These technologies have allowed journalism to flourish in countries with very little media or tight government controls on television and the press, such as those in central Africa and the Middle East.
A protester who sends a video of a violent clash with police in Damascus or Tripoli or London is in the event along with a legislative staffer, a campaign worker and a protester.
There is no attempt to answer the 5 Ws.
The old style of journalism will not be affected by the sea change.
Citizen journalism will allow traditional journalists to be more subjective.
There is news.
The person who investigates an event and tries to figure out the story is the source of the news that we read or hear.
Those hired by newspapers, television stations, web outlets, and wire services usually have an education that emphasizes the skills necessary for the job, such as writing and investigative techniques.
Professional ethics, as well as skills, are emphasized in journalism programs.
Journalism as a profession consists of people who are skilled at observing the world, at understanding what events are important to society and of interest to the public as a whole, at investigating those events, and at presenting information to the public.
Retelling the narrative of events that happen in society is not the only thing that reporting is about.
Journalists need to be aware of what interests potential readers and what seems like a good story to them.
The media outlet uses the content provided by them to attract an audience.
Reporters must also be aware of their audience.
A good journalist has the ability to investigate deeply and to present the information in a compelling way.
Reporters use their judgement about the importance of events to decide what gets covered and how.
The news media consume a steady stream of information from sources that present information to reporters in often sophisticated and strategic ways so as to get news coverage.
A news leak is the disclosure of confidential information.
Whistle blowers, lower-level officials who want to expose their bosses' improper activities, are some of the sources of leaks.
In 1971, a Defense Department staffer named Daniel Ellsberg tried to undermine official justifications for America's involvement in Vietnam by leaking top- secret documents to the press.
The social media era already has its own version of the Pentagon Papers.
A number of high-profile confidential reports from governments have been released by the group.
There are cables and other documents related to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
In June of last year, there was even more sensational disclosure of classified documents.
Edward Snowden was employed by the National Security Agency as a contractor.
The extent of the United States' cyberwarfare program was exposed by Snowden.
After fleeing the United States, he received asylum in Russia.
During the 2016 presidential campaign, thousands of hacked e-mails from Hillary Clinton's campaign were released.
Such individuals cultivate long-term relationships with journalists who they regularly leak confidential information to, knowing that it will likely be published on a priority basis in a form acceptable to them.
Journalists generally regard high-level sources of confidential information as valuable assets whose favor must be retained.
The more recipients of leaked information try to keep their sources secret, the more difficult it will be for other journalists to check the validity of the information.
Thousands of press releases are incorporated into daily news reports.
The press release is a story written by an advocate or publicist and distributed to the media in the hope that journalists will publish it under their own bylines with little or no revision.
Ivy Lee is a New York public relations consultant.
One of Lee's clients, the Pennsylvania Railroad, was involved in a serious wreck in 1906.
Lee wrote a story about the accident and gave it to reporters.
The railroad's reputation for safety remained intact despite Lee's slanted story being published by many papers.
Today's press release presents facts and perspectives that serve an advocate's interests but is written in a way that mimics the factual news style of the paper, periodical, or television news program to which it has been sent.
It's hard for the audience to distinguish a well-designed press release from a news story.
According to some experts, more than 50 percent of the articles in a newspaper on any given day are based on press releases.
Journalists are aware that the authors of press releases have agendas and are not impartial reporters of the news.
Large numbers of stories will always be based on press releases.
Newspapers and television stations are businesses, and for many the financial bottom line is more important than journalistic integrity.
One newspaper executive said that the public relations people who write news releases are unpaid reporters.
The video news release was designed for television stations.
The typical length of a television news story is about 90 seconds and the video release is designed to look and sound like any other broadcast news segment.
In exchange for airing material that serves the interests of some advocate, the television station is relieved of the considerable expense and bother of identifying and filming its own news story.
The audience doesn't know that the news it is watching is canned publicity footage.
People are hiring reporters.
It is a small step to hire real reporters to present sham accounts, from creating fake reporters to reading make-believe news stories.
A number of cases have come to light in which the government or a private concern paid journalists to write favorable accounts of its activities.
In 2005, the U.S. military acknowledged that contractors in its employ paid Iraqi newspapers to carry positive news about American efforts in that nation.
The Lincoln Group, a public-relations firm working under contract for the federal government, said it had placed more than 1,000 news stories in the Arab press since 2001.
Some local governments have hired reporters or paid newspapers to cover them.
Changes in policies and laws are covered by a local reporter for the Metropolitan Government of Portland.
The Los Angeles Kings hockey franchise, a Los Angeles County Supervisor, and a California trial lawyers group all hire journalists to follow their activities.
The list continues.
The pharmaceutical industry pays writers and reporters for favorable coverage.
In some cases, the writers are paid by the drug companies, in other cases, the writer is not the actual author.
The practices ofhiring reporters, press leaks, and planted news stories make us feel bad about the news because we expect objectivity from reporters.
fair and balanced reporting helps us sort out complex issues, and they are our main source of information.
The media makes noise when something isn't right.
If the main revenues for the news come from a government agency, it becomes more difficult.
Although politicians try to use the media for their purposes, reporters often have their own agenda.
Journalists will often break through the smoke screens thrown up by politicians to report annoying truths.
The print and broadcast media want to show a profit.
They have to cater to the preferences of consumers.
It has consequences for the content of the news media.
The long-term success of the media depends on finding a large audience.
Catering to the large audience.
The print and broadcast media and the publishing industry are responsive to the interests of the audience's better-educated and more affluent segments.
Other segments of the public also read newspapers and watch television.
The level of education is related to the level of interest in hard news.
In the news and public affairs audience, upscale Americans are overrepresented.
Lower-, middle-, and working-class Americans don't get much attention from the national print and broadcast media.
The trade union news and events are only discussed in the context of major strikes or revelations of corruption.
Labor organizations are not usually covered by a network or national periodical.
Unless scandal is involved, religious and church affairs get little coverage.
The activities of veterans, ethnic, and patriotic organizations are ignored.
The picture was not altered by the rise of new media sources.
The rise of cable television in the 1980s and 1990s increased the knowledge gap between different groups in the electorate according to a study by Markus Prior.
Gary Jacobson's research found that viewers of different cable news channels held different opinions about basic facts about public affairs.
The research from the 1970s on CBS, NBC, and ABC found that the three main networks presented the news in similar ways.
Although the media respond most to the upscale audience, groups that can't afford media consultants and issues managers can protest.
The media is often accused of encouraging conflict in order to get people to watch news for the entertainment value that conflict can provide.
Conflict is an important vehicle for drawing media attention to groups that lack the financial or organizational resources to broadcast their views.
Conflict and protest don't allow groups low on the social ladder to compete effectively in the media.
The main problem with protest is that the media have a lot of discretion in reporting and interpreting the events they cover.
The answer is usually determined by the media.
The media's interpretation of protest activities is more a reflection of the views of groups to which the media are responsive than it is a function of the wishes of the protesters themselves.
Civil rights protesters in the 1960s received the most favorable media coverage when a segment of the white upper middle class saw blacks as potential allies in the Democratic Party.
The organizers of a pro test may intend one message from a demonstration, but the debate over social media about a protest can force those organizing a protest to shift the message or become excessively controversial.
Two women independently proposed a women's protest in the weeks after Donald Trump's election.
They combined their activities and organized the Women's March.
Over message, over iconography, over location, even over the name, the disputes came.
The controversy played out before the event even happened over social media.
The content and character of news and public affairs programming can have far-reaching political consequences.
Media coverage can be INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals INRDeals The media chooses what issues to cover and how, as discussed in Chapter 10, set the national political agenda and frame political discourse.
Some of the most significant events in recent American political history have been shaped by the media.
The live feed of video from the battlefields of the first Iraq War and the coverage of events by cable news made the news even more immediate.
Every election of the past century has been influenced by mass media.
The emergence and activities of the candidates, political debates and convention are covered.
They are used for political advertising.
They generate their own campaign news by conducting publicopinion polls and reporting who is ahead and who is behind, who is gaining traction and who is fading.
The media goes to war with the U.S. military.
The wars of the Civil War were brought home by news reporting and photography.
Graphic depictions of atrocities in Vietnam and of American war dead and wounded helped turn popular sentiment against that war, which compelled the government to negotiate an end to the conflict.
Reporters and editors sometimes wield their power from the free hand of the press in American politics.
It is not uncommon to find defenders and critics of government on either side of the debate, and often they argue their positions side by side.
More people are talking about public policy thanks to online media.
Sometimes wide-open debate and criticism of public officials exact a social cost.
Free media are important to the government.
They bring to light matters that might otherwise be known only to a small group of government officials.
Without free and active media, popular government would be impossible.
The government's statements would be the only means of knowing or assessing the government's actions.
Citizens would be hard-pressed to make informed choices at the polls without aggressive media.
News coverage has become more favorable for politicians.
Since Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidency, national political leaders and journalists have had a close relationship.
The senior partners were politicians.
Reporters did not publish potentially embarrassing information about the personal lives of John F. Kennedy and Roosevelt in Washington, D.C.
The balance has changed.
The journalists seem to have the upper hand.
Journalists don't need to fear that their access to information can be restricted because politicians depend so much on media to reach them.
Today, the White House press corps challenges the president's press liaison or even the president himself.
The relationship between the White House Press corps and the Trump administration has been hostile.
The president has been criticized by other politicians, even from his own party, because of attempts to confront the media.
The media can make or break reputations, help launch or destroy political careers, and build support for or rally opposition against programs and institutions.
The forms of government control that would prevent the media from using their power would pose a serious risk to our freedom.
It is necessary for one person to assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect when in the course of human events.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, and that pursuit of Happiness is one of them.
Governments are instituted among Men to secure these rights.
If any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them will seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Government long established should not be changed for light and short term causes, as all experience has shown that mankind are more willing to suffer than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
When a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing the same object, leads to a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all of which object to the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States.
Facts can be submitted to prove this.
The most necessary for the public good has been refused by him.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation until his assent is obtained, and he has neglected to attend to them.
He refused to pass other Laws unless large districts of people gave up their Representation in the Legislature, a right formidable to tyrants only.
He has called the legislative bodies to places that were not comfortable and distant from the depository of their public Records in order to make them comply with his measures.
Representative Houses have been dissolved multiple times for opposing his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, because the Legislative powers are incapable of Annihilation, and the State remains in the mean time exposed to all dangers of invasion from without convulsions.
He tried to prevent the population of these States, for that purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.
The Administration of Justice has been impeded by his refusal to assent to laws.
Judges are dependent on his Will alone for the duration of their offices and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He sent hither swarms of Offi cers to harass our people and eat their substance.
In times of peace, he has stood among us.
The Military is now independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases.
He declared us out of his protection and started a war against us.
He has destroyed the lives of our people by plundering our seas, Coasts, and towns.
Our fellow Citizens have been taken captive on the high seas to bear Arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall by their hands.
He has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the Indians, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
Repeated injury has answered our repeated Petitions in the most humble terms: We have petitioned for Redress in every stage of these Oppressions.
The ruler of a free people who is marked by every act that may define a Tyrant is not fit to do so.
We have not been looking at our British brethren.
We have warned them about attempts to extend unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.
They were reminded of the circumstances of our emigration.
We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common brethren to reject these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
They must have been unable to hear the voice of justice and consanguinity.
As we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends, we must acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation.