The East Asia was transformed over the millennium.
China was unified into a single state after the defeat of all the rival states of the Warring States Period, but it still faced major military challenges with the confederation of the nomadic Xiongnu to its north.
China was the only place in East Asia with writing, iron technology, large cities and complex state organizations.
New states emerged as East Asia changed over the next several centuries.
War, trade, diplomacy, missionary activity, and the pursuit of learning led the Chinese to travel to distant lands and people from distant lands to go to China.
From 200 to 800 neighbors, including Korea and Japan, Buddhism became the China and the adaptation of many elements of Chinese culture by near religion.
Buddhists came to give a c.e.
The statue of a Buddhist monk is one of the many ideas and visual images that have survived in the cave Asia, the way Christianity linked societies in Europe.
The ruling elites of these countries used written Chinese as an international language, and the new states adopted political models from China as well.
The rulers of China created an empire similar to the one created by Rome.
Like the Roman Empire, the Chinese empire was put together through force of arms and held in place by sophisticated centralized administrative machinery.
Many aspects of Chinese social, cultural, and intellectual life were affected by the bureaucracy created by the Han Em pires.
China was unified for the first time in hundreds of years after a rammed-earth.
During the reign of the First Emperor, the northern border of China was fortified with anticipat and he was called the First Emperor.
His state did not last long.
The First Emperor's tomb is a half mile from the pits where the ceramic soldiers and Li Si embarked on the sweep.
To destroy the military machine.
The emperor's concern with the afterlife led to the creation of the guard.
The First Emperor ordered the soldiers to be painted in bright colors, and they held real bronze weapons.
The private possession of arms was banned to make it harder for people to rebel.
The territory that had been conquered was administered by the First Em peror.
The officials had no hereditary rights to their offices and their power and positions were solely for the benefit of the em peror.
The First Emperor ordered a census of the population to harness the enormous human resources of his people.
Census information helped the impe rial bureaucracy to plan its activities, which included estimating the cost of public works, tax revenues needed to pay for them, and the labor force available for military service and building projects.
The Chinese script was standardized to make it easier to administer al regions uniformly.
One of the most significant contributions of the Qin Dynasty was the standardization.
Weights, measures, coinage, and even the lengths of carts were standardized by the First Emperor.
Thousands of miles of roads were built to make it easier for the armies to move.
These achievements helped facilitate trade.
Most of the work on the projects was done by farmers or convicts.
The Han government lost control texts.
The government was established by the Han government because of his strength and charac colonies in Korea ter.
uprisings soon followed the invention of paper by his younger brother.
The history of Buddhism in Japan is known as Emperor Gaozu.
The introduction of merit-based policy of non interference was adopted in an effort to promote the economic recovery.
The Tang Dynasty had a great age of nese population in the first two centuries of Chinese poetry.
The emperor of the Roman Empire is the only 70 million emperor.
The Tang emperor began persecution.
It was easy to impose heavy assessments on merchants because of a widespread exploitation of commerce.
The government's decision to sell the commodities that had been collected as taxes was the worst blow to businessmen.
The Han came to promote Con fucianism and recruit officials on the basis of their Confucian learning, which was different from Legalism.
The beginning of the Confucian scholar-official system was marked by the Han government's efforts to recruit men trained in the Confucian classics.
The Han Dynasty claimed sovereignty over large areas from Korea in the east to Central Asia in the west and Vietnam in the south.
The spread of Chinese material culture in East Asia began after garrisons were established.
Silk was in demand far beyond East Asia and promoted long-distance trade.
Confucian scholars were given a privileged position under the most activist of the Han emperors.
Confucian officials did not always agree with emperors.
The officials tried to check abuse of power when they noticed that criticism of the government was one of their duties.
Their willingness to stand up to the ruler reflected the fact that most of the Confucian scholars selected to serve as officials came from landholding fami lies like those who staffed the Roman government.
During the Han Dynasty, Confucianism made a comeback.
Confucian scholars treated these classics with piety and tried to write commentaries on them to make them more useful as moral guidance.
Confucian scholars treated the Dynasty as sacred scriptures.
Many Confucian scholars specialized in a single classic, and teachers passed on their understanding of each sentence in the work.
Other Han Confucians went to the opposite extreme, developing theories that explained the world in terms of the five phases: fire, water, earth, metal, and wood.
Han art and literature have a fascination with spirits.
The interest in immortality and communicating with the spirit world was absorbed into the emerging religion of Daoism.
History writing was a major accomplishment of the Han Dynasty.
Sima Qian believed in visiting the sites where his tory was made, examining artifacts, and questioning people about events.
For centuries to come, Sima Qian's work set the standard for Chinese historical writing.
The work of three members of the Ban family was the first of these.
The invention of paper made it easier to circulate books like Sima Qian's.
Scribes used to write on bamboo and wood or rolls of silk.
The Chinese attribute the invention of paper to Cai Lun, who worked the fibers of rags, bark, and other scraps into sheets of paper.
Pa per was similar to the papyrus made in ancient Egypt.
Paper was cheaper than silk and became a means of conveying the written word, even though it was less durable than wood.
China came to favor a centralized bureaucratic form of government due to the difficulty of defending against nomadic pastoral peoples to the north.
Control of the northern border was dependent on resources from the entire subcontinent.
Prior to the Han Dynasty, China's contacts with its northern neighbors had involved both trade and military conflict.
Silk and lacquer ware were sought after by China's neighbors.
When they didn't have goods to trade or when trading relations were disrupted, raiding was considered an acceptable alternative.
Chinese sources talk about defending against raids of barbarians.
The economy of the nomads was based on raising animals.
Families lived in tents that could be taken down and moved north in the summer and south in the winter.
Everyone learned to ride from a young age.
The metal ornaments of the Xiongnu show that they were in contact with nomadic pastoralists farther west in Asia, such as the Scythians.
The ornament is 3 inches tall and made of gold.
Large coalitions could be formed by charismatic tribal lead ers.
The Great Wall was built to defend against them, and the Qin sent armies to chase them.
The early Han emperors offered generous gifts of silk, rice, cash, and even impe rial princesses as brides in order to make peace with them.
Critics thought these policies strengthened the enemy.
In 166 b.c.e., Xiongnu power did not decline.
A hundred miles from the Chinese capital, 140,000 Xiongnu raided.
China had to push the Xiongnu back.
He sent armies into the territory.
Fighting nomads was not like attacking walled cities, so these costly campaigns were of limited value.
To find allies and horses, the emperor turned his attention to the west.
The Chinese learned about other civilized states for the first time from the envoy he sent into Bactria, Parthia, and Ferghana.
The city-states along this route did not resist the Chinese presence.
They were able to carry out the trade on which they depended more.
The emperor sent troops into northern Korea to establish military districts that would flank the Xiongnu.
The Han state's territorial reach was vastly extended during Emperor Wu's reign.
States and tribes sent envoys to regulate contact with foreign countries and received gifts in return.
States and tribes sent envoys to other countries with gifts that were as much as 10 percent of the state's revenue.
In return, the tribu received gifts.
The silk given to the Xiongnu and other northern tributaries ended up in the trading networks of Sogdian, Parthian, and Indian merchants.
West Asian handi crafts are occasionally carried by caravans returning to China.
The Chinese learned of new foods through the trade along the Silk Road.
It was expensive to maintain a military presence far from the center of China.
To cut costs, the government set up self-supporting military colonies, recruited Xiongnu tribes to serve as auxiliary forces, and established vast government horse farms.
The pigs were kept in walled-off pens and fed scraps.
A model of a pigsty was placed in a tomb to represent material goods that the deceased would enjoy in the afterlife.
The cities of the empire, such as Chang'an or Luoyang, had a boom in the production of luxury goods and increased long-distance trade.
The government didn't promote trade.
Like ancient Hebrew wise men, the Confucian elite considered trade unimportant.
Merchants took advantage of others' short ages to make profits, but agriculture and crafts were more honorable because they produced something.
The grain, iron, and salt businesses were taken over by the government.
The government indirectly promoted commerce by building roads.
Markets were the most liveliest places in the cities.
Markets had fortune-telers and entertainers.
The markets were used to warn people of criminals.
Government patronage helps maintain the quality of craftsmanship.
About fifty state-run ironworking factories were in China.
At the time, Chinese metalworking was the most advanced in the world.
The Chinese were able to make tools with a higher carbon content because they knew how to liquefy iron and pour it into molds.
Bronzeworkers still turned out a host of goods despite the fact that iron was replacing bronze in tools.
Bronze was used in jewelry, mirrors, and dishes.
Minting coins and using precision tools were both done in bronze.
The crossbow was dreamed of in Europe before Han metalsmiths were mass-produced superb crossbows.
In the Han times, the majority of the population were peasants living in a few hundred households.
The government had to try to keep peasants independent and productive because the Han empire drew its strength from a large population of free peasants.
Chinese peasants were always worried about their economic well-being.
In order to fight peasant poverty, the government kept land taxes low, provided relief in times of famine, and updated agricultural methods.
Many peasants were left to choose between migration to areas where new lands could be opened and quasi-servile as the dependents of a magnate.
Chinese farmers in search of land to push into frontier areas expanded their domination at the expense of other ethnic groups in central and south China.
Imported silk fabrics were rewoven in Syrian workshops.
Silk had two monks bring back silkworms from China, along with knowledge of how to care for them and process their cocoons.
Silk was one of the earliest commodities to be imported into Europe, coming from Persia, the Byzantine Empire, and the Arab world.
Chinese farmers had domesticated Venetian merchants.
Altar clothes and vestments are used to wrap relics.
silkmaking is labor-intensive in the eleventh.
In order for silkworms to spin century Roger I, king of Sicily, captured groups of silk-workers their cocoons, they have to be fed chopped leaves from Athens and Corinth and moved them to Sicily, starting mulberry trees every few hours, day and night.
Between hatching and spinning.
Italy became a major silk producer, joined by a single filament several thousand feet long but a minuscule France in the fifteenth century.
The development of the sea route between western needed to make a pound of silk.
Europe loosened the natural gum that bound the silk to the yarn after it boiled Europe and China from the 16th century on.
bolts of silk cloth were carried from China to Europe.
The aristocracy of Europe wore silk clothes, only imported Chinese silk, but also began production of silk stockings.
The Italians created machines that could be used to throw temple banners and as a surface for writing and painting.
It was difficult to weave silk in Mongolia and Tibet because of the lack of suitable looms.
The silk trade was hit hard in the 1920s by the introduction of the introduc.
Women in the United States and Europe in the 1940s wore nylon stockings instead of high silk stockings when they traveled across Asia or across the Indian Ocean.
The Chinese family was very similar to the Roman and Indian families.
Senior males had great authority, mar riages were arranged by parents, and brides joined their husbands' families.
The practice of dividing land equally among the sons in a family, universality of patrilineal family names, and the emphasis on filial piety were some of the practices that were different to China.
China and Rome were large, complex states that weregov erned by monarchs.
Silk production in Europe collapsed.
After more than two thousand silk enterprises in China, employing China re-enter world trade in the early 1980s, China rapidly a million workers and supplying 80 percent of the total world expanded its silk production for export.
Silk trade began in 2003
To keep land from being too concentrated in the hands of wealthy people, the empires had to work hard.
People in neighboring areas that came under political domination were given material goods, productive techniques, and other cultural artifacts by the conquerors.
China and Rome had the same frontier problems and tried the same solutions.
The differences between Rome and Han China are worth watching.
The Roman Empire was more diverse than China.
In China, there was only one written language, the Romans wrote in Greek and other languages, and people in the eastern Mediterranean could claim more ancient civilizations.
China didn't have the same cultural rivals.
The dynastic principle was stronger in China than in Rome.
Han emperors did not have the same publican ideals as the Roman senate or the army.
She wrote that women will do well if they cultivate the womanly virtues.
Humility means yielding and acting respectful, putting others first and oneself last, never mentioning one's own good deed or denying one's own faults, all with due trepidation.
Most of the next three decades was spent by Ban Chao.
You can draw inferences from the fact in Central Asia.
The palaces, scenic spots, local products, and customs of the two great cities are described.
Ban Gu was often accompanied by the Emperor on hunts or travels because he was fond of literature.
He depicted her taking up her brush with women and children when he edited her record of court debates.
The last list of books in the imperial library was added by him.
Ban Gu was sent to prison because of his association with a general who was out of favor.
Ban Gu's sister, Ban Zhao, was called on by the emperor to finish it.
She became a teacher of the women of the palace after coming to the palace.
The widow of an earlier emperor became regent after an infant succeeded to the throne.
Ban Zhao was often used for advice on government policies.
Ban Zhao credited her education to her father and mother and became an advocate of the education of girls.
Many families teach their sons to read, but not their daughters.
There were no distinctions between original and added territories.
The two empires had different social and economic structures.
Slavery was more important in Rome than in China.
Chinese and Roman social and political development were different over time.
regents ruled in the place of child emperors until they reached maturity, and the families of empresses dominated the court.
The eunuchs were also difficult to control.
As the palace rose in a massive revolt, a millenarian religious sect played an important role.
The armies were raised to fight the rebels.
After years of fighting, a stalemate was reached, with three different warlords controlling different parts of the country.
The last emperor of the Han Dynasty was forced to abdicate in 220.
After the fall of the Han Dynasty, non- Chinese who had settled in north China since Han times were politically divided ended a brief reunification.
For the next two and a half centuries north China was ruled by one or more non- Chinese dynasties, while the south was ruled by a sequence of four short-lived Chinese dynasties.
There is a hereditary aristocracy in the south.
These families only married with families of the same name and compiled lists of the most prestigious families.
The arts of poetry and calligraphy flourished in this culture.
The economic development of the south was helped by the establishment of the capital at Nanjing.
To pay for an army and to support the imperial court and aristocracy, the government had to expand the area of agricultural land.
The south has a warm climate and plentiful supply of water.
The first case of alien rule in China was the Northern Dynasties.
There were ethnic tensions from time to time.
The capital was moved from near the Great Wall to the ancient city of the same name in the late fifth century.
The armies were in the hands of the Xianbei tribesmen.
Buddhism was spreading beyond India in the same way that Christianity was spreading out of Israel.
Buddhism was shaped by its con tact with different cultures in different areas leading to different forms.
The vast area between the ancient civilizations of Persia, India, and China is referred to as Central Asia.
The region was diverse through most of recorded history and was home to urban centers and herders in the mountains.
Buddhism spread throughout India in Ashoka's time.
There are different forms of Buddhism in Asia.
The Mahayana Buddhism of Japan came via Central Asia, China, and Korea.
Theravada Buddhism of Southeast Asia came from India.
Buddhism spread to Central Asia under Ashoka in India.
This continued under the Kushan empire.
The influence of Greek art was strong in this region and artists began to depict the Buddha in human form.
Most of the city-states of Central Asia became centers of Buddhism over the next several centuries.
The Mahayana form of Buddhism that spread from Central Asia to China, Japan, and Korea was a more inclusive form of the religion.
Buddhism became more devotional as a result of the influence of the Iranian religions.
The head of an expanding pantheon of other Buddhas and bodhisattvas, the Buddha, came to be treated as a god.
Buddhism became more of a religion for lay people as a result of the growth of this pantheon.
Many people were open to new ideas in the unstable political environment.
Bud dhist concepts of reincarnation of souls, karma, and nirvana posed a stimulating intellectual challenge to Chinese scholars.
The Buddhist religion was used by rulers to unite Chinese and non-Chinese.
Buddhism's emphasis on kindness, charity, and eternal bliss was comforting in a rough and tumultuous age.
Buddhism did not pose a threat to the social order, and the elite who were drawn to it encouraged its spread to everyone.
The establishment grew quickly in China.
Buddhist monasteries were active in social, economic, and political life like their Christian counterparts.
A man had to give up his family name and take a vow of celibacy in order to become a monk.
If you are not ready to become a monk or nun, you can become a lay person and make contributions to monasteries.
rulers in the north and south were the most generous patrons.
In China, women turned to Buddhism as quickly as men.
The monk is sitting in the crossed-legged meditation position.
His small niche is to the left of the main image of the Buddha in cave 285 at Dunhuang, a cave completed in 539 under the patronage of a prince of the Northern Wei imperial house who was the local governor.
She would confess a minor fault several mornings in a row if she got a good sign.
Sometimes, as a good Buddhist Nuns omen, she saw flowers rain down from the sky, heard a voice in the sky, or saw a Buddha image.
Women who are drawn to Buddhism could become nuns.
As soon as he met them, he showed them their secular name was Zhu, and their family was very respected.
There was no Kaoping at that time.
The family venerated the Buddhist convents in the capital region, which were converted into the Great Vehicle.
She was forced to serve as a shepherdess far from her native place.
There was no way back after ten years when her longing for her home and family grew 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 She herself was the first person to keep her mind fixed on the Three Treasures.
You wish to become a nun.
He agreed to her suggestion.
Not a householder.
After granting her request, he presented her with a long time after she died.
She didn't know the secular name was Jiang.
She traveled her family road both day and night.
When crossing over, it was from Danyang.
A tiger lay a few steps away from her when she was a mountain.
After ten years of terror, she was well educated, and her hopes were more classics and history, and after the days of the monastic assembly she became learned.
The tiger disappeared as she was about to enter the village.
The Eastern Jin dynasty's empress admired again, this time by Ming Bolian, after she arrived in the province.
The family did not allow merit to be gained by giving gifts or listening to religious, but they did allow her to enter the life of a Buddhist nun.
She most often depended on the convent after three years of practicing strict religious practices.
Ladies can follow her intentions.
She kept all the regulations of the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with the with
A woman who did not want to marry or stay with her husband's family in widowhood could join a nunnery.
The break with Confucianism was significant for women, as evidenced by the fact that the only woman ruler of China was invoked Buddhist principles to justify her role.
A Buddhist nun of the Universal Light convent painted a portrait of her and put it in the corner to show tery, two gold.
She had her head shaved in other nuns, like curtained dais and all accessories.