The means and error bars overlap for the two experimental conditions where participants talked on a cell phone, regardless of whether they held the phone.
There seems to be no difference in the number of crashes when drivers talk on a hands-free cell phone and on a handheld cell phone.
Both conditions require the driver's focus to be on the conversation.
The sample experiment shows that the manual task of holding a cell phone while using it is not what impairs driving.
The mean number of crashes in a driving simulation is shown in this hypothetical experiment.
There are error bars to show the variability of data.
The data shows that talking on a cell phone can interfere with driving.
Regardless of whether the phone is in the driver's hand or not, driving is impaired by the phone conversation.
This result is consistent with other research.
A review of 206 studies found that the skills necessary to drive a car can become impaired when people perform a second task at the same time.
Cell phone use is not safe according to the take home message.
It is more dangerous than having a conversation with a passenger because passengers notice the driving conditions and know not to distract the driver.
If you read this appendix, you will understand why it is so dangerous to use a cell phone while driving, even if you are using a hands-free phone.
Cell phone use can interfere with your focus on driving, and you need to avoid distraction to drive as well as possible to avoid crashes.
This knowledge can help you change your behavior and inspire others to do the same.
Write your answers to the questions and check them out.
Answers to the red Q questions can be found in Appendix B.
The learning goal activities should be reviewed.
The learning goal activities should be reviewed.
An overall summary of a study's results is provided byferential statistics.
If two or more groups are due to chance variations or cal response in the middle of a data set, the measures indicate.
The range and standard deviation are measures of variability that show differences in the mental activity of the groups being compared.
The direction and strength of the relationship between vari significance are what a correlation coefficient describes.
The correlation shows whether the variables change in the same way or in different ways.
Correlation coefficients can range from zero to 1.0.
There is a very strong relationship between the variables correlation coefficients and the strength of a correlation.
The answers to self- quiz questions are the first step in critical thinking.
The study of human mental activity and the claim that is being made is called psychology.
The nature/nurture debate considers how mental processes and behaviors are influenced by biological and/or 1.3 environmental factors.
Structuralism requires a lot of thought and leads to poorer memory.
Mental activity, behavior, and underlying brain processes are investigated by cognitive psychology.
The theory of natural selection is related to functionalism.
The study of enduring characteristics that people display over time is called personality psychology.
Cultural psychology looks at how societal rules, values, and beliefs affect our behavior and how we should accept it.
The subfield of psychology that is most likely to investi a hypothesis is what Simon has come up with.
The number of words remembered gate attention processes in any situation, including using during a visual task as the dependent variable that will let a cell phone while driving, is cognitive psychology.
A hypothesis is a testable prediction about the Learning Goal Activities.
One limitation of case studies is that they are subjective.
The findings might not apply to an observational study.
Because the research shows a relationship between 1.10 No and weight, you should not grow your hair in order to lose weight, two variables, because of a limitation of the correlational research method a correlational method was used.
You can't determine what causes the relationship activity 1.10b.
The control group gets the baseline 1.11 and the experimental group gets the treatment and the dependent variable is measured.
The dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron are the subject of ethical guidelines.
In public settings, action potentials are never stronger or weaker than they are in private settings.
The four main parts of a neuron are dendrites, cell body, neural axon, and terminal buttons.
On 3, the axon becomes positively charged.
The hindbrain is the part of the brain that contains the cerebellum, which is important for coordination and motor learning.
The formation of antagonists decreases the effects of a neurotransmitter.
There is information on the electrical activity in the 5.
The primary visual cortex and brain are located in the occipital lobes.
The peripheral nervous system is part of the somatic nervous system.
The part of your central nervous system that sends information is the spine.
It moves muscles and joints by receiving information from another part of the central nervous system.
The gateway to the cortex is called the thalamus.
The thalamus is the part of the peripheral nervous system that prepares the body for action and is in charge of the fight- or- flight response.
It would most likely be responsible for the increased heart rate that allows him to run from the bear.
The prefrontal cortex is different in humans.
In having a sense of self, androgens are found in higher levels.
The Learning Goal Activity 2.10b is detected by your nervous system.
A geneticist looks at how genes and environment affect psychology.
Behavioral geneticists study the nervous system in order to calm it.
The gonads of males and females are the same home because of similarities between the twins, which are thought to release hormones and be due to genetics.
Sex development is influenced by how "nurture" influences estrogens.
Your genes areotype.
The environment is what determines theotype.
The brain allows plasticity to change through experience.
Behavioral genetics explores how genes and environment interact to influence psychology.
A person's state of consciousness refers to the connections, and building new connections, whereas a person's brain is influenced by environment and can change by growing new neurons.
Chapter 2: Answers to Self-Quiz Questions is the idea that the brain and the mind are separate.
The global workspace model shows how consciousness is associated with at the end of the axon, cross the synapse, and bind with the activity in certain areas of the brain.
Automatic processing is fast and does not require a lot environment.
They are often confused if they wake up from attention resources.
Refer to learning slower.
According to consolidation theory, the main benefit of subliminal perception is to help us strengthen and consolidate the neural to information.
Stage 2 sleep is when a person is fully asleep.
Sleep spindles and 6 are revealed during this stage.
REM behavior disorder is caused by the body's muscles.
The content of a non-REM dream is dull and not strange, as dreams tend to be during REM sleep.
Sleeping for a long time after running a marathon or awareness of their conscious experiences is consistent with the restoration accessible.
A person may experience going to bed at the same time every night, regardless of flow, an altered state of consciousness and what time of day it is.
Everyone can't be hypnotized.
Goal activity 3.11b is the only one that hypnotist works on.
The altered state of conscious ness is created by hallucinogenic drugs, which change a person's perception, thoughts, and feelings.
The altered state of consciousness is called flow.
When the body becomes accustomed to certain levels of experience that have no consequences beyond itself, this form of physical dependence occurs.
Stimulants are what these substances are.
Goal activity 3.13b is increased by them.
Chapter 4: Answers to Red Q Questions and withdrawal, which is the experience of anxiety and tension, is one of the physical aspects of addiction.
The baby is in the fetal stage at 16 weeks.
Alcohol can impair an unborn baby's 2 through exposure from the father, mother, or both.
Automatic processing happens when we do well.
Young infants have poor color vision and low visual acuity, so they most easily perceive objects with stark contrasts, Learning Goal Activity 3.3b.
An infant with a secure attachment is most likely showing these responses.
Clark will be unable to have object permanence because of the cut to his corpus callosum when he is 8 months old.
He picked up the toy with his left hand.
The child cannot understand that the toy is hidden.
Delta waves are used by a toddler before about 24 months of age.
The stage of telegraphic speech where consciousness is combined with two words to convey sleep is very different.
In a meaning of an entire sentence, people can respond to important information.
The limbic system matures before the frontal lobes.
He should have used the irregular past tense to make good decisions instead of using the regular that are stronger.
The crisis of identity must be resolved by adolescents.
Secondary sex characteristics are changes in the role confusion, by figuring out who they are with the adolescent body that makes it look more adult.
The bodily changes that relate to parents and peers are the primary sex to factors such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and characteristics.
During puberty, there are two changes that happen.
Bullies don't feel moral feelings of guilt and shame.
Bullies with high self- esteem tend to 8.
People in the conventional level of moral reasoning are likely to make moral decisions based on laws or social rules.
When most people reach middle age, they face a challenge because their wives encourage generativity versus stagnation.
The challenge provides social support and reflects healthy lifestyles.
Children who are raised with a brain condition called dementia will leave something for future generations in thinking, memory, and behavior.
People with cognitive impairments respond quickly to information and do two things at the same time.
From 2 months until the birth of the baby, a developing at one time, and learning new information.
Human is a fetus and the woman is in the fetal stage of learning.
Refer to the baby's development.
Most pregnancies end with a Learning Goal Activity.
Alcohol is an example of a teratogen, which is the translation of physical stimuli into a legal drug, with severe effects on a developing human.
Alcohol can cause birth defects such as facial and limb malformations, heart defects, and intellectual disabilities.
Refer to Learning Goal Activity 4.3b has a noticeable difference.
The process of maturing occurs when children develop a set of motor skills based on a proportional change between the two stimuli.
Maturation was thought to be a purely biological process that reflected the influence of nature.
The influence of nurture is best explained by opponent- process theory, experiences and environment, because some ganglion cells make it seem that green and development.
There is an attachment.
Children with ambivalent attachment cry when they see people together as a crowd because we group caregivers leaves and are inconsolable when we are together close objects.
Shay is out of the preoperational stage of cognitive similarity.
The number of eyes is the main difference.
In this stage, he is able to think logically and perform, but he has to use two eyes to understand operations on concrete objects.
He has monocular depth cues that are only available with one eye.
The blinking lights appear to run in a continuous line because of the stroboscopic motion.
Eric can put words together in English.
The four types of object constancy are size, shape, color and brightness.
Loud sounds have higher sound waves.
Papillae are structures on the tongue that cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea by making them taste buds.
The taste buds have a mechanism for bending in response to input.
People who have a lot of papillae have more taste buds.
It's lower sensitive to certain tastes.
The firing rate of 5.11b causes Learning Goal Activity pitched sounds to be perceived.
Sensory information is processed through the thalamus.
If Cosette's sense of smell is 5.11, then any of the other three structures are sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
The Refer to Learning Goal Activity 5.12b does not processfactory information.
It goes directly to the olfactory bulb.
When you shake hands, the pressure in the skin to vibrate and different types of pressure can be detected.
The perception of touch is made in the skin.
Rubbing can close the pain.
Fast fibers carry information that reduces the experience of pain.
The axons of fast fibers are insulated.
The technician is trying to figure out when Mia can hear something.
The absolute threshold is the smallest amount of input needed.
A person's ability to distinguish between two or more experiences leads to learning.
sensation is the process of detecting physical stimuli
Light waves can be felt in the eye.
The rods detect dim light and let us see in the dark.
Cones are the sensory connections when one neuron is repeatedly activated.
It was 6.4 food that was unconditioned in Pavlov's research and it elicited a response with no prior experience in the brain.
Stimulus discrimination can help you learn how to identify colors that are opposites.
If a child fears dogs, then they seem to be opposites.
A binocular depth cue is binocular disparity.
It allows you to see depth because the brain calculates how far away objects are based on the 6.7.
Only objects that are close to you can use this cue.
Refer to the food because it predicts nausea.
Learning goal activity
The action was the operant and the reinforcer 5.
The grade of A on the exam is caused by the hair cells.
The hair cells change sound waves 6.9, which is why a cash bonus is a secondary reinforcer.
Not serving a biological need is not the right thing to do.
A primary reinforcer relays a neural signal to the brain.
Reinforcements increase behavior.
Something is added that increases behavior because Kai is having problems hearing high pitched forcement.
Something is taken out of the sound waves.
These waves increase behavior according to place theory.
The learning system is called a token economy.
Modeling occurs when someone learns a behavior by theory because it takes place without reinforcement, and then imitates another person's actions that are central to operant conditioning.
When someone is suspended for this behavior, you are less likely to cheat.
We can learn not to vicarious conditioning through vicarious conditioning.
We can learn to empathise if we see another person being reinforced for it, because 6.14 mirror neurons are thought to be the basis of observational through vicarious conditioning.
There are three stages of information processing.
Habituation is a form of learning.
In this memory, he was habituated to the noise of his roomate information for a period of time, so he didn't notice it anymore.
Refer to learn when you need it.
Darren has the ability to focus on the 2.
In this scenario, seeing her boyfriend is the uncon lesson, he will be more likely to create new memories.
It causes an unconditioned physiologi about the material.