Costs for all parties were enormous, including lives, money, trade disruptions, and reputation.
Parties were allowed to air their grievances through diplomacy.
When diplomacy failed, there were violent conflicts.
The politics and policy of American communities, states, and the federal government are shaped by the complexity of indigenous cultures.
Red Jacket was one of the most effective middlemen between Native Americans and U.S. officials, shown in this portrait as a refined gentleman.
He has a medal around his neck that shows his position as a middleman.
An alliance of North America's indigenous populations helped stop the encroachments of the United States.
They created pan-Indian towns in Indiana in defiance of the Treaty of Greenville.
From Canada to Georgia, Tecumseh called for unification, resistance, and the restoration of sacred power.
Many movements swept through North America during the 18th century because of the pan-Indian confederacy.
Through Neolin, the Master of Life,urged Native peoples to ignore their dependency on European goods and technologies, to reestablish their faith in Native spirituality and rituals, and to cooperate with one another against ThE EaRly REpublIc 183.
After the Seven Years' War, Neolin advocated violence against British encroachments on Indian lands.
Polyglot communities of indigenous refugees and migrants from across eastern North America lived together in the Ohio and Upper Susquehanna Valleys.
The many Native peoples of the region united in attacks against British forts and people when combined with the militant leadership of Pontiac, who took up Neolin's message.
The Great Lakes, Ohio Valley, and Upper Susquehanna Valley areas were involved in a war between the British Empire and the confederacy of the Indians.
Neolin's message was kept alive by other Native prophets, who encouraged indigenous peoples to resist Euro-American encroachments.
The Creek headman Mad Dog, the Painted Pole of the Shawnee, and the Main Poc of the Pot were included.
The Ohio Valley and Great Lakes regions were the epicenter of the pan-Indian resistance from 1791 to 1795.
The Native coalition achieved a number of military victories against the republic, including the destruction of two American armies, forcing President Washington to reformulate federal Indian policy.
The experiences of a warrior against the American military in this conflict probably influenced the later efforts to generate solidarity among North American indigenous communities.
Their ideas and beliefs were similar to those of their predecessors.
The Master of Life gave the responsibility for returning Native peoples to the one true path and to rid Native communities of the dangerous and corrupting influences of Euro-American trade and culture to Tenskwatawa.
He blended the tenets, traditions, and rituals of indigenous religions and Christianity in order to promote cultural and religious renewal.
In chapTER 7 Tenskwatawa emphasized apocalyptic visions that he and his followers would bring about a new world and restore Native power to the George Catlin.
The emphasis on cultural and religious revival gave the prophet's spiritual power a boost and freed him from the oppression of the American in the early 19th century.
The hatred for land-hungry Americans drew in many of the indigenous communities of the Old Northwest.
He refused to concede any more land and attracted a lot of allies.
The Master of Life ordered Tecumseh to return Native lands to their rightful owners.
In his efforts to promote unity among Native peoples, Tecumseh also offered these communities a distinctly "Indian identity" that brought disparate Native peoples together under the banner of a common spirituality, together resisting an oppressive force.
The resistance movement was tied together by spirituality.
This pan-Indian rhetoric was used by Tenskwatawa to legitimate their own authority within indigenous communities at the expense of other Native leaders.
The witch hunts of the 1800s were the most visible example of this.
Those who opposed Tenskwatawa were labeled witches.
The Red Stick Creeks brought ideas from the Southeast to the Northwest.
The Red Sticks, led by the Creek prophet Hillis Hadjo, created new religious practices specific to the Creeks after he left Creek Country.
The Red Sticks joined the resistance movement of Tecumseh in order to purge Creek society of its Euro-American dependency.
Creek leaders who maintained relationships with the United States believed that diplomacy and accommodation could keep American encroachments to a minimum.
The Red Sticks found that most of the leaders in the southeast cared little for the confederacy of Tecumseh.
The Red Sticks found themselves in a civil war against other Creeks because of the lack of allies.
The Red Sticks were cut off from the North by Andrew Jackson in 1813.
Jackson's forces were joined by Lower Creek and Cherokee forces that helped defeat the Red Sticks, leading to Jackson's victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The Red Sticks were forced to give up fourteen million acres of land in the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
Many Native leaders did not want to join the American republic.
After the failures of panIndian unity and loss at the Battle of Tippecanoe, the confederation fell apart.
During the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain, Tecumseh and his army seized several American forts on their own initiative.
At Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison, American fighters suffered heavy losses.
After American naval forces secured control of the Great Lakes in September 1813, the confederacy faced an uphill battle.
Despite being surrounded by American forces, Tecumseh and his Native allies fought on.
"Our lives are in the hands of the Great Spirit," Tecumseh told the British commander.
If it is his will, we want to leave our bones on our lands.
In October 1813, Tecumseh fell on the battlefields of Moraviantown, Ontario.
His death dealt a blow to the pan-Indian resistance.
There was a legacy of pan-Indian unity left by men like Tecumseh and Pontiac.
The British relaxed their policies toward American ships after Congress ended the embargo in 1812.
Despite the embargo's unpopularity, Jefferson still believed that more time would have proven that peaceable coercion worked.
The war with Britain was a war that would rivet the young American nation.
American involvement in two international issues led to the War of 1812.
The first was related to the nation's desire to maintain its neutral position during the series of Anglo-French wars, which began in the aftermath of the French Revolution in 1793.
The second was from the colonial and Revolutionary era.
The British Empire had interests that were in conflict with those of the Americans.
British leaders were not interested in accommodating the Americans.