Spanish is a first language with an active and important Spanish-language media.
White Anglos feel threatened by what they see as the encroaching of Spanish in areas with large Hispanic populations.
Foreign languages are not allowed on official documents in many communities.
The English-only controversy is about national and cultural identity, a struggle to lay claim to the voice of America.
The Hispanic struggle for civil rights in America is unique because of the reaction against immigration, particularly undocumented immigration, which is a problem in some areas of the country.
Hispanic American citizens may be indistinguishable from recent immigrants if there is a backlash against legal immigration.
They have been followed and challenged by the police, forced to show proof of legal residence on demand, and subjected to unpleasant reactions from non Hispanic citizens who blame an entire ethnic group for the perceived behavior of a few of its members.
It makes acceptance into American society more difficult for Hispanics, encourages segregation, and makes it easier to deny equal rights in employment, housing, and education.
The political position of Hispanics is improving.
They have been able to organize and call attention to their circumstances like African Americans.
Cesar Chavez was the leader of the United Farm Workers in the 1960s.
He became a symbol of the Hispanic struggle for equal rights because of his call for a nationwide boycott of grapes and lettuce picked by nonunion labor.
The National Council of La Raza, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, and the League of United Latin American Citizens continue to lobby for immigration reform, for Latino civil engagement, and for the end of discrimination against Hispanic Americans.
Hispanics have a low voter turnout rate because they are disproportionately poor and less likely to vote.
The political clout of Hispanics is considerable where their numbers are concentrated and their socio-economic status is high.
Presidential candidates make pilgrimages to South Florida to speak out against Cuba's communist policies, a position popular among the Cuban American voters there.
The politics of reestablishing relations with Cuba may be changing since President Obama assumed that a policy of disengagement and sanctions had not worked.
Hispanic communities have benefited from grassroots political organization in states like California, Texas, and New Mexico.
Hispanic voter registration has increased due to such movements.
Latino voters made up 11 percent of the electorate in the general elections, up from 9 percent in 2008.
As the Republican base has become solidly against immigration reform, Hispanics have increasingly voted Democratic.
Because of the increase in the number of potential Hispanic voters, and because of the prominence of the Hispanic population in battleground states such as Florida, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, and even in places such as Iowa where one might not expect a significant Hispanic population, candidates generally court Hispanic voters.
In recent years, immigration reform has become a partisan issue, with Democrats proposing more generous immigration policies, and Republicans wanting to tighten them.
Different versions of the DREAM Act would have provided a path to permanent residency and even citizenship for the children of immigrants who came to this country as minor, but who have completed high school here, but Republicans made it a point to defeat it.
In 2012 President Obama announced that his administration would grant a special immigration status to young people who fit the DREAM profile, deferring any deportation action against them for two years.
The Latino vote broke for Obama in the 2012 election.
Republicans held a "post-mortem" to see where they needed to improve their voter outreach efforts.
They needed to join Democrats behind immigration reform or they would lose the Latino vote for a generation or more.
The plan proved too much for the Tea Party group of the party and their efforts came to nothing.
Hillary Clinton won the Latino vote despite Donald Trump's opposition to immigration.
Hispanic turnout wasn't enough to cost Trump the election despite his opponent on the ballot.
Forty Hispanic representatives and four Hispanic senators were in the 116th Congress.
There are three Hispanic governors.
In 2004, President Bush appointed the first Hispanic attorney general, and in 2009, President Obama appointed the first Hispanic justice to the Supreme Court.
Some of the experiences of Hispanics are similar to those of Asian Americans, facing cultural prejudice as well as racism.
The history of Asian American immigration, the events of World War II, and the educational and economic success of many Asian Americans make the Asian experience unique.
The Asian American population is not the same as Hispanics.
There are Americans with roots in China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, India, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
By the time of their arrival in the United States, Asian Americans vary by country of origin.
The families of Chinese and Japanese Americans have lived here for over two centuries, arriving in the early 1800s with the waves of immigrants who came to work in the frontier West.
The Chinese Exclusion Act and the National Origin Act of 1925 were passed because of the resentment of white workers, who were being squeezed by the low pay the immigrants would accept.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1943 and Asian immigrants were treated the same as other nationalities.
The fastest-growing immigrant group in America is made up of Asians and Pacific Islanders from all over Asia.
Asian Americans live in every region of the United States.
In 2015, Asians comprised 56 percent of the population in Hawaii, and six million were living in California.
Increasing numbers of recent immigrants are found in the south.
Since arriving in the United States, Asians have faced discrimination.
The fact that they are identifiable by their appearance makes it difficult to integrate into the larger European American population.
While most immigrants dream of becoming citizens in their new country, and eventually gaining political influence through the right to vote, that option was not open to Asians.