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18 -- Part 7: Practical Applications of Immunology
The following vaccines should be categorized by type.
In the following situations, label the components of the direct and indirect FA tests.
Match the serological tests in column A to the descrip tions in column B.
Adding fluorescent to a slide can be used to detect syphilis.
The indicator is labeled with brain tissue.
A fluorescent dye is added to the red blood cells.
A test is used to detect the presence of antibodies.
Many serological tests require a supply of antibodies.
These are injected into a person's skin.
Four people are examples in the first and second questions.
The filter paper is being streaked bybacteria.
Maria's worker died after contracting the disease from the children.
The following choices are used to answer questions.
A person was bitten by a bat.
A test is used to identify the disease in a dog.
As an AIDS nurse, you discuss the HIV status of a newborn with her mother.
The baby tested positive for both Western and ELISA, but the test for HIV was negative.
Diagnostic methods for HIV can be found on pages 540-541.
The answers to In the Clinic questions can be found online.
The two lymphocytes shown attacking a cancer cell are cells of the immune system.
Not all immune system responses produce a desirable result in this chapter.
hay fever is caused by repeated exposure to plant pollen.
If the blood of the donor and the recipient are not compatible, a blood transfusion will be rejected and rejection is a problem with transplant organs.
The immune system can mistakenly attack one's own tissue.
Superantigens cause a cytokine storm that results in damage to tissue.
The effectiveness of our immune system declines with age, and some people are born with a malfunctioning immune system.
The immune system can be damaged by HIV, a virus that attacks the immune system.
Two lymphocytes are attacking a cancer cell.
Name two examples of delayed cell-mediated reactions that cause shock and breathing difficulties.
The two cell types are similar in that they were previously sensitized and exposed to the same antigen again.
The incidence of food and environmental allergies is increasing.
Ige causes anaphylactic shock from drug injections and degranulation of mast cell or basophil, and common allergic conditions.
When combined with the action of complement, the target cell is destroyed.
Inflammation can be caused by arthus reactions, which can take up to 8 hours to form.
The antigens kills the target cell in 48 hours.
Breathing difficulty can be caused by smooth muscle contraction in the respiratory bronchi.
The mediators are not preformed and stored in the granules.
The bronchial tubes are attacked during asthma attacks.
IgE antibodies are produced in response to an object.
When the gap between two is bridged.
Two French biologists studied the responses of dogs to the venom of stinging jellyfish in the 20th century.
The dogs were usually killed by large amounts of venom, but some survived the injections.
The results of the experiments with the venom were surprising.
The dogs were killed by a very small dose of the venom.
Their cardiovascular system collapsed and they died quickly.
Someone who is sensitized to it will have a systemic reaction.
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