Both Rembrandt van Rijn and Rubens were masters of Protestant Holland.
A bigger contrast in personality can't be imagined.
Rembrandt won a lot of recognition early in his career.
His fortunes began to decline after his beautiful and well-to-do wife died.
He fell into debt, his popularity vanished, and he turned inward in his thoughts.
Rembrandt's most profound work was done in the dark days of tragedy and self-examination.
Even his non religious works have a spiritual quality.
He usually took his subjects from the middle or lower classes.
He used contrasting light and shadow to portray them, shunning bright colors and extravagant movements.
Those who see Rembrandt's paintings for the first time will see dark or drab colors.
He didn't want the viewer to be blind by the surface of his canvases.
Rembrandt put into his work many of the qualities of Italian painting, even though he spent most of his life in Amsterdam.
These included careful organization and balance, as well as psychological interest.
Rembrandt looks inward in this self-portrait.
He shows himself in the dress and with the instruments of his calling.
He mostly uses his skill, as well as his artistic perception, to explore his own character.
The risen Christ walked with his two followers unrecognized to a village near Jerusalem.
Rembrandt understates the scene as a moment of drama, despite the fact that Baroque artists usually depict it as a moment of drama.
Christ's followers were too absorbed by the sight of him to be amazed, so he shows an intimate group in a corner of a shadowy room.
The pain was so bad that I screamed, but I wanted it to last forever.
Giovanni Bernini uses theatrical devices to reenact the words of a Spanish mystic.
The saint's face and the angel's smile echo the commonest human experience of unbearable pleasure as the figures are poised on a cloud with no apparent support.
On the day of the resurrection, Jesus appeared, unrecognized, along a road.
Two of his disciples invited him to eat with them at an inn.
Rembrandt shows Jesus at the moment when he blessed and broke the bread and was revealed to his disciples as the risen Christ.
Rome was the main source of the Baroque style.
The sculptor and architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini finished his work in the 17th century.
Bernini thought of himself as an artist who combined several talents despite being trained as a sculptor.
The revival of the Italian sculptural tradition was Bernini's most distinctive contribution.
Bernini was able to catch the fleeting instant, throbbing passion, and rhythm of movement in the cold stone.
He learned a lot from Michelangelo, but his work was even more inventive.
He brought sculpture to new heights of drama and emotion.
Bernini's huge plaza surrounds the approach to Saint Peter's Basilica.
An ancient Egyptian obelisk was brought to Rome in imperial times and tipped with a cross during the Renaissance.
The colonnades are linked with the basilica by a straight-sided space, which widens towards the still loftier columns of the western entrance.
The universal Church's architecture proclaims that the Church has spread around the world and triumphed over Rome.
The face and body of the saint express rapture as a smiling angel looks on.
Bernini was a master of dramatic effect as an architect.
The piazza before Saint Peter's Basilica is the largest church in Christendom.
They have a roof that is more than 60 feet high.
Visitors entering the piazza from the open end are embraced by the Church.
Baroque architecture was an adaptation of Renaissance models.
Classical elements such as columns, pediments, and arches were not required to follow the ancient "rules" for their use.
The spectacular effects that it makes possible are well adapted to proclaiming the glory and power of the buildings' users, which is why many of the public buildings of the West have been designed in this flexible style.
The monarchs of Europe quickly adopted the style.
Philip II of Spain, the most powerful ruler of his time, began to build a new palace in 1563, in the mountainous country near Madrid.
Philip's architects created a large complex of buildings and courtyards with an elegant church at its center.
The Spanish kings and queens were entombed in a vault beneath the main altar.
It has symbolic meaning for both friends and enemies.
In 1871, Prussia was proclaimed the emperor of Europe's new dominant power, united Germany, and in 1919, France and its allies summoned the Germans back to sign the treaty ending the First World War.
Its plan is Baroque, but its architectural style is restrained.
The Versailles Palace was built a century later by Louis XIV.
The French monarchy replaced the Spanish as the leading royal house of Europe and Louis wanted to build a center of government and the arts that would surpass all existing palaces.
Louis's residence was built in the countryside, about 20 miles southwest of Paris.
The secular Baroque style combines architecture, landscaping, sculpture, painting, and the minor arts into a grand synthesis.
Versailles was built at a staggering cost.
Ten thousand people were housed in the enclosed areas.
The formal gardens, courts, parade grounds, and surrounding woods stretch over many square miles.
The plan is a realization of the Baroque idea of integrated design.
The exterior of the Versailles Palace is modest, but the interior is extravagant.
Most of the religious groups still believe in two traditional ideas about the place of religion in the community despite the changes of the Reformation.
There was only one religious truth, that all members of a community should confess it, and that deviation from it was a danger to souls.
If necessary, the rulers of the community had a duty to coercing those who deviated from the truth.
These beliefs in unanimity and partnership made for conflict because there was no single religion anymore.
Rulers of countries with different dominant religions might make war on each other.
Rejected old religions or rising new ones, facing a hostile partnership of Church and state, might rebel and even seek help from sympathetic foreign rulers, both to protect themselves from persecution and to impose their own version of truth on the community.
rulers continued their non religious struggles for power, land, and trading opportunities, as well as for personal, dynastic, and national glory.
Their partnership with powerful subjects continued to be full of tensions just as it had been in the past.
Conflicts became entangled with religious disputes because they did not replace them.
The wars of religion were embittered as a result of the religious and non religious rivalries.
In every country, there were also idealistic humanists who were in principle against settling religious disputes by force, as well as prudent statesmen who feared religious war would weaken their countries in non religious struggles.
When the rival religious groups had fought each other to a standstill and compromise seemed inevitable, their voices only got a hearing at times.
New non religious disputes and new religious conflicts gave new reasons for war when compromises were made.
The wars of religion were fought in three main stages, each inspired by one or other of the main religious movements of the time.
The wars in the Holy Roman Empire began because of the spread of Lutheranism and ended in the first attempt at religious compromise.
The spread of Calvinism led to civil and international wars in the second half of the 16th century.
After the Counter-Reformation gathered strength, Catholic efforts to recover lost territory led to new struggles in the Holy Roman Empire that reached their height in the Thirty Years' War.
When the Thirty Years' War ended, efforts to change the religious balance internationally at last came to seem so costly and destructive that they were clearly harmful to the non religious interests of whoever pursued them.
Religion stopped playing a role in international conflicts in the second half of the 17th century.
After the religious wars of the Reformation there was a new secular European state system.
The Netherlands came under the rule of the Spanish Habsburgs after the division of the territories of Charles V. He introduced political and economic restrictions after admitting the Inquisition.
William "the Silent" prince of Orange-Nassau was the leader of both Catholics and Calvinists who rebelled in 1566 in response to the challenge to their self-government.
There were wars in the Netherlands for nearly half a century.
The old rulers and the old religion of the southern Netherlands were recovered by the Spanish armies.
The Calvinists fought the Habsburg forces on land and sea.
In 1581, they declared independence, but it took nearly thirty years before a truce gave them Spanish recognition.
The largest province of the United Provinces of the Netherlands is called Holland.
Holland's commercial wealth made it a leading contender in European power strug gles throughout the 17th century, and it became one of the main challengers of Spain and Portugal for control of worldwide trade and empire.
There were disagreements between Calvinists and dissident Protestant groups in Holland.
Civil war in a small country that was still vulnerable to Spanish attack would be very bad for business.
Holland became Europe's first country to hold a policy of religious toleration, even though the government remained under Calvinist control.
The Catholic southern Netherlands was ruled by the Habsburgs until the French Revolution.
After a brief period of reunion with Holland, they won independence as the country of Belgium.
Religion and politics were different in France.
After the death of Francis I, the country had a series of weak rulers, and noble groups began to spring up that wanted either to limit the monarch's power or to bring the government.
Calvinist ministers provided religious fervor and powerful nobles provided military power in the Huguenot movement in France.
The Huguenots never made enough converts or gained enough victories to take over the government, and the rulers were too weak to crush them.
For most of the second half of the 16th century, there was a series of civil wars and foreign interventions.
He became a Catholic in order to win the loyalty of the strongest religion.
Civil rights, religious tolerance, and even the possession of military forces and strongholds were guaranteed by the Edict of Nantes in order to keep the support of the Huguenots.
After his death, this second attempt to keep religious disputes separate from political struggles broke down, as Henry was able to restore both national unity and royal power.
He broke the military power of the Huguenots.
The Huguenots faced a strong Catholic government that favored their own religion.
The Huguenots were a small group of middle-class townspeople.
The settlement left each German prince free to decide if his subjects would be Lutheran or Catholic.
The Jesuits guided the Catholic princes over the next sixty years to wipe out the Protestant dissent in their territories.
The zeal of the Lutheran princes was weakened by disagreements with Calvinist minorities.
The Protestant princes joined together in an armed league in 1608 in order to protect themselves from danger.
The revolt in Bohemia, a self-governing kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire, began as each camp watched for any move that might upset the religious and territorial balance.
The trouble in Bohemia was caused by the Czechs who were both anti-German and anti-Poland.
Under moderate Catholic rulers, the Protestants of Bohemia enjoyed toleration.
Ferdinand of Styria, a Habsburg and a Counter-Reformation Catholic, was forced upon them as king and they feared that their religious and political rights were in jeopardy.
The Calvinist prince of the Rhineland was chosen as the king by the Bohemian nobles in 1618.
Ferdinand's election as Holy Roman Emperor in 1619 gave him added strength, as well as the support of the Spanish Habsburgs, which helped him crush the poorly organized rebellion.
The armies moved into the Rhineland to destroy the possessions of the defeated king.
The pro c hapter 9: the reformation: division and reform in the c Hurc h cess was intended to reverse the empire's gradual break up and turn it into a powerful Catholic state under Ferdinand's rule.
The papacy hoped that victory in the empire would lead to victory in Europe.
Many other rulers were afraid of what the Habsburgs hoped for.
In order to protect Lutheranism, the king of Danes decided to intervene in Germany.
The English and Dutch wanted to check the advance of Habsburg power.
Sweden joined the fight against Ferdinand.
When it seemed that Ferdinand was too successful, the princes of the empire lost their enthusiasm for the struggle.
Cardinal Richelieu put political interest above religion in his international dealings and Catholic France joined the war on the Protestant side.
Richelieu wanted to build a Catholic monarchy at home, but he didn't want Ferdinand to do the same in the Holy Roman Empire.
All of the empire's neighbors became involved at one time or another, but the balance of forces was too even, and no one was able to win a lasting victory.
Germany was turned into a battlefield by armies from other countries.
It took thirty years for the contender to give up hope of victory.
The Peace of Westphalia is a landmark in European history.
Calvinism, Lutheranism and Catholicism were included in the terms of the Peace of Augsburg in Germany.
The prince had the right to give one of these faiths to his subjects, but the conditions throughout the country were so bad that no one used force to make them conform.
From the exhausting struggle came a kind of religious coexistence.
Germany was left in a state of desperation after the war ended.
The country was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The loss of property was severe and the population had been reduced.
The Holy Roman Empire was reduced to a shell after the German princes won independence.
The Netherlands and Switzerland were recognized as independent states after being subject to the Habsburgs.
The Bourbon dynasty, founded by Henry IV, took the lead in Europe after Germany and the Habsburgs fell.
The settlement's main provisions lasted until the Napoleonic Wars.
The emergence of the modern European state system marked a shift in the balance of power.
Sometimes religious wars were fought.
The late-seventeenth-century struggles between English-backed Protestants and Frenchbacked Catholics in Ireland ended in more than a century of second-class citizenship for the Catholic majority.
In France, where King Louis XIV turned from toleration to persecution of the Huguenots, vicious coercion of out-of-power religions continued for the time being.
In 1685, he revoked the Edict of Nantes and tens of thousands of refugees were deported to Protestant countries.
The leading role in international and civil conflicts that Christians had played since the 16th century ceased to include religious disputes.
The Spanish branch of the Habsburgs has been overwhelmed by war.
The Ottoman Empire and Poland are weakened by internal disputes.
The future belongs to Russia, the Austrian Habsburgs, the United Netherlands, and the rising western European "superpowers," France and England.
The wars of religion in the Middle Ages were unusual because the rulers shared a common faith.
European countries and rulers excluded religion from their conflicts now that there was no common faith.
Rulers no longer thought of themselves as belonging to a single Christendom, whose harmony was liable to be disturbed by quarrels arising from human nature.
The papal claims to authority over the political life of Europe were gone and each state was free to wage war or make peace.
A model for the new European state system was seen in Italy during the Renaissance, when city-states such as Florence, Milan, and Venice worked out a system of relationships among themselves.
The Italian experience helped shape the international relations of the powerful states beyond the Alps.
The idea and practice of international law was born out of the end of common authority in the 17th century.
The law provided standards that were widely respected, even though some rulers were more careful than others.
Grotius recognized war as a legitimate state of affairs, but he laid down some guidelines for "humane" methods of war.
Grotius condemned the acts of poisoning wells and massacring hostages.
The ancient Roman principles of natural law were used to explain the rights of neutral states and civilians in war zones.
The wars of religion ceased in the 18th century.
The partnership between the state and the religion remained in effect as minority religions gradually came to be tolerant, though their believers were usually excluded from public office.
In the 19th century, European countries mostly granted religious minorities, Christian and non-Christian, full toleration and civil equality.
Supporters of new secular ideologies were more likely to violate religious freedom and equality than religious believers.
The last result of the wars of religion was this.
The books by Bainton, Chadwick, and Cameron are listed in the first section.
The World History Resources Center at http://history.wadsworth.com/west_civ/ offers a variety of tools to help you succeed in this course.
The rise of the modern west in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries was an era of further spec changes in civilization.
The basic features of the modern West were brought about by these new shifts.
Europe's traditional government structure of kings and nobles claiming authority from God was undermined by violent revolutions and peaceful reforms.
European settlers in North and South America revolted against their rulers.
Slavery and serfdom were abolished.
Secular ideologies challenged Christianity as the central belief of Western civilization.
The traditional way of life gave way to an industrial society as the pace of technical advancement and scientific discovery turned into a headlong rush.
The medieval pattern had already been altered by the earlier shifts in civilization.
The rise of industrial society was made possible by the technical advances of the late Middle Ages, the worldwide markets opened up by overseas exploration and empire building, and the financial resources of burgeoning capitalism.
The Renaissance revival of ancient Greek science and philosophy inspired the astronomer who overturned the earth-centered model of the universe to develop new ways of gaining scientific knowledge.
The high point of the growth in the power of hereditary rulers was the revolts and revolutions that shook the traditional order.
The Enlightenment belief in reason, progress, and human fulfillment was the first of the secular ideologies and was developed by eighteenth-century philosophers who were impressed by Europe's growth in knowledge, wealth, and power.
The new shifts in civilization interacted with one another in such a way as to drive them onward.
The rise of secular ideologies was caused by the increase of scientific knowledge, and the breakdown of consensus over Christian belief made it pointless for governments to rule in the name of God.
Political leaders were able to rally citizens of large countries to influence governments because of industrialization.
Millions of workers were freed from slavery and serfdom because of Enlightenment principles.
A new kind of civilization grew up within the West that was different from the previous ones, as a result of all these changes.
In this new civilization, the majority of the population lived in cities and worked in factories and offices rather than on farms, and the traditional division of power between men and women was beginning to break down.
It was wealthy enough to have realistic expectations of health, education, leisure, and abundance for everyone.
Its governments ruled in the name of the people and the nation, and had more control of their citizens' lives than ever before, forcing them to go to school, support them in sickness and poverty, and draft them into the army.
The citizens were given rights and freedoms that allowed them to wield more power over governments than ever before.
This civilization had a conflicting view of the order of the universe and the fate of the human race.
It still viewed these things as fulfillment of divine purposes to be interpreted through religion, but it also saw them as the result of natural processes to be understood through science.
It was the first civilization to pin its hopes and fears for its own future on the production of a flood of technical advances and scientific discoveries.