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There are many macromolecules that comprise cells.
All of these macromolecules are made of carbon.
The carbon atom has unique properties that allow it to form covalent bonds to as many as four different atoms, making it ideal to serve as the basic structural component of the macromolecules.
There is an incomplete electron shell for individual carbon atoms.
The first two electrons fill the inner shell, leaving four in the second shell with an atomic number of 6.
The octet rule states that carbon atoms can form bonds with other atoms.
The chemical formula CH4 is provided by the methane molecule.
The four hydrogen atoms form a bond with the carbon atom by sharing a pair of electrons.
In our daily lives, we use fuels like propane in a gas grill or butane in a lighter.
The bonds between the atoms in hydrocarbons store a lot of energy and release it when they burn.
Methane is an excellent fuel, with a central carbon atom bonding to four different hydrogen atoms, as shown in Figure 2.21.
The methane molecule's geometry is determined by the shape of its electron orbitals.
The carbons and hydrogen atoms form a triangle.
Methane is described as having tetrahedral geometry for this reason.
Each of the four hydrogen atoms has a different angle.
Linear carbon chains, carbon rings, or combinations of both are possible as the backbone of the large molecule of living things.
Individual carbon-to-carbon bonds may be single, double, or triple covalent bonds, and each type of bond affects the molecule's geometry in a specific way.
The shape of the large molecule of life is critical to how they function.
Carbon atoms form chains.
The overall molecule's geometry is altered by the different geometries of single, double, and triple covalent bonds.
Different carbon-to-carbon bonds affect the molecule's geometry as shown by the hydrocarbons ethane, ethene, and ethyne.
The first name of all three molecules is "eth-", which is the first name for two carbon hydrocarbons.
propane, propene, and propyne follow the same pattern with three carbon molecule, butane, butene, and butyne.
Single bonds allow rotation along the bond's axis, whereas double bonds lead to a planar configuration and triple bonds to a linear one.
The shape of carbon when it forms bonds with other atoms is tetrahedral.
The shape is flat when two carbon atoms form a double bond.
The bonds in ethane are able to rotate.
The atoms on either side are locked in place because of double bonds.
The hormones estrogen and testosterone are examples of biological molecules that incorporate the benzene ring.
Benzene is a natural component of crude oil and has been classified as a carcinogen.
There are both aliphatic and aromatic parts to some hydrocarbons.
The example of a hydrocarbon is the scurvy.
Five- and six-membered rings can be formed with carbon.
Nitrogen may be substituted for carbon in single or double bonds.
Understanding chemistry is dependent on the placement of atoms and chemical bonds.
For example, butane can be used as a fuel for cigarette lighters and torches, while isobutane can be used as a propellant in spray cans.
The two CH3 groups can be found on either side of the double covalent bond in the simple molecule butene.
The cis configuration is when the carbons are bound on the same side of the double bond.
It is a trans configuration if they are on opposite sides of the double bond.
In the trans configuration, the carbons form a linear structure, whereas the carbons in the cis configuration make a bend.
We call the molecule that has the same number and type of atoms the same molecule.
Double bonds can be found in the cis or trans configuration in the long carbon chains in triglycerides.
Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
When some of these bonds are in the cis configuration, the bend in the chain's carbon backbone means that they cannot pack tightly, so they remain liquid at room temperature.
Alternatively, triglycerides with trans double bonds are able to pack tightly together at room temperature and form solid fats.
Many food manufacturers have reduced or eliminated the use of trans fats due to their increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Saturated fat is a solid at room temperature.
The models show a cis and a trans.
The molecule bends due to the cis configuration.
The L-forms of amino acids are found in nature.
The cell walls ofbacteria and other organisms have D forms of amino acids in them.
We rarely see the molecule's L-form in nature, as the D-form is the main product of photosynthesis.
Examples of mirror images are D-alanine and L-alanine.
There are L-forms in the human body.
They are found along the "carbon backbone" of macromolecules.
This carbon backbone is formed by chains and/or rings of carbon atoms with the occasional substitution of an element such as nitrogen or oxygen.
The functional groups in a macromolecule are usually attached to the carbon backbone at one or several different places.
Each of the four types of macromolecules has its own set of functional groups that contributes greatly to its differing chemical properties and its function in living organisms.
Specific chemical reactions can be participated in by a functional group.
They include: carbonyl, carboxyl, and sulfhydryl.
These groups play an important role in forming the molecule.
Functional groups are usually classified as either hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
The nonpolar methyl molecule is an example of a hydrophobic group.
The carboxyl group in amino acids is one of the functional groups.
The negatively charged COO- group is caused by the ionizing of the carboxyl group.
This contributes to the nature of the molecule on which it is found.
The carbonyl group has a partially negatively charged oxygen atom that can form hydrogen bonds with water, making the molecule more hydrophilic.
There are many different functional groups.
R is an abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule.
Hydrogen bonds between functional groups are important to the function of many macromolecules and help them to fold properly into and maintain the appropriate shape for functioning.
Figure 2.28 shows how hydrogen bonds are involved in various recognition processes.
The double-helix structure is created by hydrogen bonds connecting two strands of DNA.
Water is an excellent solvent.
There is something that occupies space and has mass.
It gets hotter to raise its temperature.
The hydrogen bonds between water have unique qualities that allow them to combine continually break and form again.
This allows for the overall in various ways to create molecule, which in turn combine temperature to remain stable, although energy is added to to form cells, tissues, organ systems, and organisms.
The key to how organisms cool themselves by smallest units of an element that retain all of the properties that evaporate sweat is the high heat of vaporization that water exhibits.
Water's cohesive forces allow for that element.
The property of surface tension can be transferred, shared, or caused by electrons, whereas the property of capillary tubes can be created by bonds between atoms.
The van der Waals is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and interactions.
Water is regulated in living organisms.
Water has many properties that are critical to maintaining moderate changes that can be caused by acids and bases.
It is a polar molecule that allows for forming hydrogen.
Carbon does not have any electrons in it.
Carbon hydrogen can form rings.
The carbon has unique properties that make it a central part of the chain.
Carbon bind to oxygen, hydrogen, and that define their overall chemical characteristics and nitrogen covalently to form the many molecule important function.
There are isomers.
The water is cold.
Water keeps the temperature stable.
When acids are added to a solution, the pH should be called.
There is an atomic number of 19.
Which of the following is not a functional group.
Saturated and Unsaturated Triglycerides can be compared and contrasted.
Discuss how buffering helps prevent swings in pH.
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