The central concepts and tools in human geography will be reviewed in this chapter.
The first part focuses on the central concepts that encompass all of the six areas that you must know for the test.
We will review the necessary information regarding maps, map types, and map scale.
There is a list of models that you need to know in order to take the exam.
We will give a list of the names of important geographers along with their contributions and the key terms for the chapter.
Our class notes-style guide packed with tons of visuals helps you understand key concepts and must-know info for the exam.
Humans consider space and place to be the most important concepts in geography.
geographers consider space and place to be central concepts in research and theory, but most other scientific fields do not.
The final frontier is not something that geographers talk about when they talk about space.
The geometric surface of the Earth is what geographers are referring to.
It's a good idea to think of geographic space as an abstract concept.
Imagine placing objects on the Earth's spatial surface that are defined by their location and separated by distance from other things.
Whatever you choose to visualize, these objects could be people, trees, buildings, or even whole cities.
When talking about activity space, they're referring to an area where activity occurs on a daily basis.
Thinking Spatially means understanding the pattern and distribution of objects and analyzing their relationships, connectedness, movement, growth, and change across space and over time.
The concept of place is still important.
An open and broad concept of place is important.
People don't have to live there for it to be a place.
Even in the midst of a desert or an ocean, you can have a sense of place.
It is common to assign a place-name, or more technically a toponym, to a location when human importance is recognized.
Historical interrelatedness of locations can be revealed by place-names.
A room is a small area that is as large as a continent.
There are different categories of places, such as urban places, places of work, resource locations, and transportation nodes.
Sequent Occupancy is the idea of the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place's history.
There are many historical layers that contribute to a place's culture, society, politics, and economy.
Santa Fe, New Mexico, has a mix of Native American, Spanish colonial, and modern American influences.
The relationship of an object to the Earth is called scale.
Scales can be thought of in two different ways in geography.
The ratio of distance on a map to distance in the real world is described on a map scale.
The scale of analysis is also referred to as relative scale.
The level at which you group things together for examination is described by this.
Scales can range from the individual or the local, from city to county and state, from regional to national to continental, or to the international and global scales.
The use of the word "glocal" has begun to express the importance of both local and global scales.
The free-response section of the exam is a good place to use scale modifiers.
If you are talking about a local government, a federal regulation, or an international organization, you should specify whether a company is a transnational corporation or a local business.
It is incorrect to compare different scales of analysis or places at different scales.
It would be wrong to assume the rest of Georgia had the same characteristics as Atlanta.
If you looked at economic data from Alabama and assumed the rest of the United States had the same median income, types of businesses, and unemployment rates, you would be wrong.
Free-response questions are graded based on a metric.
Points can be earned for detail or example material if you specify the scale of the items you're being asked about.
There are three categories of regions: formal, functional, and vernacular.
A single place can exist in several regions at the same time.
The wetlands in Florida are also considered a wetlands region in the Southern U.S.
There are many different regions and they can overlap.
Keep an open mind about what can be considered a region.
The spatial definition of the formal region is an area that has a certain homogeneity.
There is at least one thing that is the same across the region.
The defining character can be as simple as a language.
Everyone speaks the same language in a linguistic region, but there are different cultures in that region.
The United States and Australia are both in the same linguistic region, but they don't have much in common.
The American South, or "Dixie," is a region with many factors that define it, such as dialect, vocabulary, food, architecture, climate, ethnicity, and religion.
People don't agree on whether states like Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland are part of the same area.
Regional boundaries are determined by the type of region.
There are fuzzy borders in culture regions.
It's difficult to tell where one region ends and the other begins in the United States.
Political regions have boundaries that are finite and well-defined.
The political boundaries between Canada and the United States are porous, as are those between the United States and Mexico.
The boundaries of the environmental region are measurable.
An ecotone is the environmental transition zone between two bioregions.
There is a dry grassland region between the tropical savanna of Africa and the Sahara Desert.
A functional region is a point of origin that expresses a practical purpose.
The areas close to the center have the strongest influence on this point, as distance increases from that point.
Market areas are functional regions.
In areas close to the team's home city, a professional sports team will have the strongest fan base and intensive media network coverage.
The larger region around that city has fans and media viewing, but they diminish as you get further away.
The fans transition to another team's functional region and the media networks move in that direction.
There is a concept of distance decay.
Consumers can be affected by a similar market area in an outlet mall.
Most of the shoppers will come from the local area.
Because outlets are often placed far apart, there will be a larger area of influence for the mall that will have shoppers travelling from longer distances but making fewer trips.
Many outlet shoppers just passing through the interstate see a chance to do some discount shopping.
An attraction at a shorter distance takes precedence over an attraction that is farther away.
The perception or collective mental map of the region's residents is the basis of the vernacular region.
Individual or group variations can affect the overall concept.
Some people think of the American South as being defined by the location of country music bands or fans, while others think of it as being defined by the number of Southern Baptist church congregations or NASCAR races.
Some people consider the states of the Civil War-era Confederacy or the part of the country where it never snows to be the only places where it is.
The author thinks it's defined by where people have Southern accents.
He was raised in West Virginia, a Union state during the war.
The reason for the regional concept is usually a point of pride for residents.
Be careful with your definitions.
There are country music radio stations in all 50 states.
Wisconsin, California, and New Hampshire are un-Southern states where some of NASCAR's events have the largest attendance.
The concept of location is similar to scale, and we can consider location in both relative and absolute terms.
The location is defined using coordinates such as latitude and longitude.
The location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature is referred to as relative location.
The most common way to fix a point on the Earth's surface is using latitude and longitude coordinates.
Many students mix up the definitions of latitude and longitude.
The longitude is how long the ladder is in degrees, east or west of the Prime Meridian.
The lines of longitude were the longest lines on the globe, going all the way from pole to pole.
Keeping in mind notation is important.
The location is given first with latitude and then with longitude, each with a different direction.
There are degrees that can be divided into minutes and minutes that can be divided into seconds.
The coordinate system used to divide partial degrees is known as decimal degrees.
The latitude is 0 degrees.
The latitude of the North and South Poles is 90 degrees.
The Prime Meridian is 0 degrees.
The 180 degree line of longitude is on the opposite side of the Earth.
The International Date Line goes around a number of international boundaries.
The British Royal Navy developed a way to calculate longitude at sea, which is why the Prime Meridian runs through Great Britain.
The development of the chronometer, a gear-driven clock, by London jeweler John Harrison in 1785 allowed British ships at sea to determine their latitude.
It was fixed on the Royal Naval Observatory in London.
The captains were able to know how far west or east they were from their home country.
The French didn't mind that the line ran through the center of France.
The international system of longitude was accepted by other nations.
At the 1884 International Meridian Conference, the Prime Meridian was officially adopted as 0 degrees longitude.
There are 15 degree-wide longitudinal zones around the world with some exceptions.
This is due to the fact that it is divided by 24 hours a day.
One exception to this rule is China, where leaders established one time zone for the entire country.
Political boundaries can sometimes be followed by dividing lines between time zones.
In the era of transcontinental railways, time zones were created to standardize time across long east-west train lines.
Relative location is based on a place's relationship to other known geographic features.
When someone from a metropolitan-area suburb is asked where they are from, the response is usually relative and will refer to the larger city.
Someone from Arlington, Virginia, might say they are from Washington, D.C., while someone from Santa Monica, California, might say they are from Los Angeles.
You might put a lot of value on a place because of its location.
Dublin, Ireland, became an important international business location due to its low-cost economy, English language skills, and close relative location to Great Britain, where the cost of doing business was extremely high.
There are two locational concepts that work together.
New York City is located on a large, deep water harbor, next to the Atlantic Ocean, which is referred to as a site.
New York City became the most prominent trade and finance center in the United States during the 1800s due to its position as a terminal for trade goods on the Hudson River to and from the rest of New England.
Boston, Massachusetts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Charleston, South Carolina did not have the benefit of a large inland waterway above the main port location.
You should consider distance in both relative and absolute terms.
It can be measured in terms of the degree of interaction between places or in units of time traveled.
Linear absolute distance is the distance from one place to another.
The concept of distance decay is used by geographers to explain relative distance.
The less likely interaction will be with the original place if different places are from a place of origin.
The principle of Tobler's law states that all places are interrelated, but closer places are more related than farther ones.
The interaction between two points is affected by the length of distance.
The time and cost of moving a product prevent it from being sold in far-off locations.
Space-time compression refers to the decrease in time and relative distance between places.
The relative distance between places can be reduced by technology.
Airplanes reduce travel time between two distant points and increase interaction.
The Internet can be used as an example of how a whole network of distant places can be brought together.
Human activity can be thought of in central places.
They are the center of economic exchange.
Market centers tend to be centrally located within the larger economic region, and markets are often located at transportation nodes, which provide accessibility to and from these points.
The school of thought known as central place theory was developed in the 1930s by Walter Christaller.
He thought the economic world was a spatial model.
In the model, city location and the level of urban economic exchange could be analyzed using central places within hexagonal market areas which overlap each other at different scales.
Chapter 8 contains more information on central place theory, market areas, and the range and threshold of the service.
The idea of core and periphery emerges from central place thinking.
There is a core and periphery relationship between many different regional, cultural, economic, political, and environmental phenomena.
A country's capital is the core of its political landscape, just as the central business district is the core of the urban landscape.
The core doesn't have to be in the center of the peripheral region.
The core of the Mormon culture region is located in the Salt Lake City-Provo-Ogden metropolitan area.
The highest concentration of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is located here.
Most of the rest of Utah, eastern Nevada, southwestern Wyoming, northern Arizona, southern Idaho, and eastern Oregon have a significant LDS population.
The peripheral Mormon culture region is composed of these areas.
Explaining the core-periphery relationships that you see as part of the larger question can earn you additional points.
Special terms are used to describe different types of spatial patterns.
A cluster is when things are grouped together on the Earth's surface.
Agglomeration is when clustering occurs around a central point.
A random pattern is when there is no rhyme or reason for the distribution of a spatial phenomenon.
It can be referred to as scattered objects that are normally ordered.
If a pattern is straight, it is linear, and if it is wavy, it is sinuous.
Property lines and political boundaries are affected by land survey patterns.
Before the 1830s, land surveys used natural landscape features to divide land on a system of metes and bounds, which had been developed in Europe centuries earlier.
Surveyers in the United States and Canada used a rectilinear township and range survey system based on lines of latitude and longitude after the 1830s.
The block-shaped property lines and more geometric shapes were produced by this.
Quebec and Louisiana are former French colonial areas.
These are close to a road or waterway with a long lot behind them.
Density is calculated as the number of things per square unit of distance.
This is called density.
In the United States, there are three Starbucks coffee shops per square mile.
The number of people per square unit of arable land is called cardiopulmonary density.
There are many ways in which human phenomena can spread across the Earth's surface.
Culture, ideas, and technology can spread from a point of origin to other parts of the world.
The point of origin or place of innovation can be called a hearth.
There are different types of diffusion.
There are three types of expansion diffusion.
Chapter 5 contains more details and examples of diffusion.
The expansion pattern begins in a central place and then goes out in all directions.
The distance doesn't have to be the same in all directions.
The pattern of diffusion begins in a first-order location and then moves down to second-order locations and from there to third-order locations at increasingly local scales.
The pattern of contagious spread begins at a point of origin and then moves to nearby locations, especially those on adjoining transportation lines.
This can be used to describe a disease but also describe the movement of other things.
The creation of new products or ideas can be stimulated by a general or underlying principle that diffuses.
When vegetarian eating habits influence restaurants to offer more vegetarian dishes, it's known as stimulus diffusion.
The pattern of relocation begins at a point of origin and then crosses a physical barrier, such as an ocean, a mountain range, or a desert.
The journey can affect the items being diffuse.
Maps are important for geographers because they separate them from other social scientists.
Maps are a science and not just a form of art.
The results of spatial analysis are the results of scientific maps.
There are many map types, and there are a few that you should know for the AP Human Geography Exam.
Topographic maps show the lines of elevation, as well as the urban and vegetation surface with road, building, river, and other natural landscape features.
The maps are very accurate.
They are used for surveys in wilderness regions.
There are a number of different map types.
Land forms for other features are not shown in each one.
A dot-density map showing the distribution or population within a country is what the theme could be.
It could be very complex, showing multiple related subjects, such as a weather map that shows temperature, wind, pressure, and areas of precipitation.
The maps show the geographic variability of a theme.
These variations can be expressed using colorized symbols, which are filled with different colors, or country boundaries filled with different colors.
Data values are calculated between points on a map.
A series of lines can be drawn between points A and B to show the change in data.
If the value of each line is 1, we would see six lines labeled 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10.
There are two points, one inside of the line labeled 5 and one within the line labeled 10.
The points are then combined to create a continuous surface of isoline.
The most common isoline maps are temperature maps.
Dots are used to show the volume and density of a geographic feature.
The numbers of people in an area can be represented by the dots, or they can show the number of events that happened in the area.
The dots represent the number of people who suffer a heart attack in a state.
Each state has a number of dots in its boundary that represent the number of heart attacks.
Flow-line maps show the direction and volume of a movement pattern.
A map showing the total number of foreign immigrants in the United States is an example.
The immigrants' country of origin would be the starting point for each line, with a thickness based on the total number of immigrants.
A thin line would be drawn from Portugal to the United States and a thicker line would be drawn from Ireland to the United States.
Cartograms are used to represent real-world places.
Linear features such as roads become lines with basic angles at 90 and 135 degrees.
Cartograms are more about the data being expressed than the landscape.
In subway systems and other transportation maps, the exact geography of the route is less important than the items along the way.
Everyone has a mental map.
The human mind has a cognitive image of landscape.
Each person has a mental map that shows their location around their home, school, and workplace.
We have good knowledge of the landscape along the transportation corridors that we frequently travel.
Our mental maps are usually blank.
You can improve your mental map by understanding the science behind location, distance, scale, and different map types.
Map scale and relative scale are two different types of geographic scale.
The map scale is the absolute form of the scale concept.
There are a couple of ways map scales can be expressed.
The scale expresses distance on the map.
The map legend will show the ratio scale of the map.
The relationship between the distance on the map and the real distance on the Earth's surface is shown.
In this case, 1 inch on the map is about two-thirds of a mile.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS) uses a map scale on their maps.
The mathematical ratio can be expressed as the map scale.
A large-scale map has a ratio that is comparatively large.
A small-scale map has a ratio that is very small.
The amount of area and level of detail expressed depends on the map scale.
Think of 1:250,000 as the break point because there is no agreed-upon convention as to a dividing line between large- and small-scale maps.
There probably won't be a question that asks you to differentiate between the projections on the AP Human Geography Exam, but they could ask you about the practical issues behind certain projections.
Each projection creates different levels of accuracy for different parts of the Earth.
The level of accuracy of a map projection is based on two concepts.
Equal-area projections attempt to maintain the relative spatial science.
The northern Canadian islands are kept at the same map scale as southern Canada on a flat sheet of paper because of these.
Projections attempt to keep the shape of the map.
Conformal projections can cause a distortion of the relative area from one part of the map to the other.
In a projection such as the Mercator, the shape of Greenland appears to be larger than South America, but in reality it is much smaller.
Some map projections try to balance area and form, sacrificing a bit of both to create a more visually practical representation of the Earth's surface.
The Robinson projection is one of the examples.
A model is an abstract generalization of real-world geographies that share a common pattern.
Spatial models try to show similarities among similar landscapes.
Urban models try to show how different cities have similar spatial relationships.
There are some non-spatial models.
The demographic transition model uses population data to build a general model of the growth of national populations without reference to space.
Despite being abstract generalizations, models give us a way to see geographical patterns that are not normally seen by the human eye.
These patterns are not visible on road maps.
Some theoretical questions can be addressed by models.
A graph showing the cost-to-distance relationship in urban real estate prices can be created by modifying the concentric zone model.
Land prices are relatively low in suburban areas, but high in the central business district.
Chapter 8 explains the bid-rent curve.
One of the more difficult parts of the AP Human Geography Exam is the models.
It's a good idea to discuss these in detail.
If you don't know the name of the person who developed each model, you may not know what historical significance it has.
There are a number of different types of spatial analysis that use the gravity model.
The area of influence of a city's businesses, the flow of migrants to a particular place, and the transportation flow between two points are some of the things that are calculated using gravity models.
A gravity model can be used to divide the size of two places by the distance between them.
A relative score is given for the gravity of the relationship between two places.
The gravity model score of the relationship between NYC and Tokyo is similar to that of NYC and London.
This can help explain why there are close relationships between financial investors in NYC and Tokyo.
The amount of air travel between Tokyo and NYC is higher than that between NYC and London.
The advent of the desktop computer in the 1970s made geographic information systems practical.
A computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping has one or more data layers.
Data layers are the data that is attributed to a specific area.
Data between layers can be analyzed as all data is fixed to a specific location.
There are different types of geographic feature shown in each layer.
In the following example, the spatial analysis capabilities are shown.
Students at Utah Valley University used Geographic Information System to analyze the relationship between personal wealth and earthquake danger.
One data layer quantified housing values, while other layers werecoded for variable degrees of earthquake hazard based on ground shaking potential, landslide potential, and soil liquefaction potential.
Each part of the city wascoded for low, moderate, or severe damage.
The largest category of homes in the city were at risk for the most severe damage.
The neighborhoods were all middle-class.
The analysis showed that the city's average-wealth homeowners were at greatest risk during an earthquake.
Emergency phone systems are an important example of the benefit to society.
When you call for help from a land line, your phone number is checked in a database to bring up your address.
Three or more cell towers can triangulate your phone location if you call from a cell phone.
The data about your home is in the database.
Data regarding the type of heating used in your home is available to first responders if you call to report a fire.
In the case of rescue emergencies, some cities keep data on the number of elderly, disabled, or persons requiring oxygen in a residence.
The lives of firefighters and residents can be saved by this data.
The art and science of hand-drawn maps have become extinct because of mapping.
There are a lot of paper, computerized, and online mapping systems.
One of the most popular uses of Geographic Information System is in-car navigation systems.
"Turn right in 500 feet" is a phrase used in American automobiles.
This isn't coming from a person.
This is a cue from the in-carGPS system regarding the next turn.
More than half of all smart phones have the Google Maps app, and in-car gps systems are popular around the world.
The global positioning system uses a worldwide network of satellites.
When this signal is available from three or more Navstar satellites, aGPS receiver is able to triangulate a coordinate location and display map data for the user.
In addition, there are handheldGPS units for outdoor sporting use,GPS units on delivery trucks and emergency vehicles that notify supervisors of their location, and units that land surveyors use to locate property lines, find buried utility lines, and accurately lay out new construction sites.
A large amount of the geographic andGIS data used today is made up of aerial photography and satellite-based remote sensing.
Aerial photographs were used for mapping.
In the 70s, space-borne remote-sensing satellites became available.
There is a difference between aerial photographs and remotely sensed imagery.
Digital camera usage is on the increase, but aerial photographs are just that-- images of the Earth from an aircraft.
Satellites use a computer to record data from the Earth's surface.
The data includes both visual light and radar information.
Local governments use large-scale aerial photographs to record property data.
Updating old maps can be done without a survey team using aerial photographs.
Wetlands and barrier islands on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana are currently being monitored.
Satellite data is collected each year to show the areas and patterns of beach and wetlands loss.
Environmental planners and engineers use this analysis to develop beach restoration projects.
Satellite imagery can be used to determine the health of vegetation.
This data can be used to create crop yield predictions.
Commodity traders use the results to set prices for staple food crops.
Food prices are stable over the long term.
Milk, bread, and cereals could be subject to wild price swings due to uncertainty in the national supply of cattle feed.
Over the last 230 years, a number of geographers and allied scientists have contributed significant research.
You need to be able to associate a geographer with a particular concept, theory or model in order to take the AP Human geography exam.
Space, place, location, scale of analysis, regionalization, and spatial patterns are some of the key concepts of geography.
It is possible for culture, technology, or ideas to be spread by relocation or expansion.
Geographers use maps, projections, spatial and mathematical models, and geographic technologies to understand spatial organization.
You need to explain and apply the major geographical models.
There are answers and explanations at the end of this chapter.
The strength of the relationship between two places is estimated by the gravity model.
The size of the island appears to be larger than South America on some maps.
An absolute location is a place defined on a map by latitude and longitude, or some other form of precise coordinates.
You can narrow down the choices if you're not sure.
A relative location is the location of a place as compared to a known place.
An area of influence is a geographic area in which a business affects a consumer.
A nodal region has a central place that is the focus and expresses some practical purpose.
A formal region is an area of space that is consistent.
The phenomenon that occurs when distance plays a role in obstructing interaction between two locations is known as friction of distance.
The other choices can be eliminated by their definitions.
The less likely interaction will be with the place of origin if the farther away different places are from a place of origin.
The cultural, economic, or social connection between two places can be described by relative distance, a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of distance.
According to Tobler's law, all places are interrelated, but closer places are more related than farther ones.
The number of things per square unit of distance is called Arithmetic density.
A type of map that uses dots to express volume and density is called dot density.
Potential energy per unit volume or mass is related to energy density.
The number of people per square unit of arable land is called the Physiological Density.
SequentOccupancy is a term that refers to the succession of groups and cultural influences through a place's history.
Native Americans, the Dutch, Irish, Italians, Jews, and more recently Third-World groups have all arrived in New York City.
The Romans, Moors, and Christian groups from the northern half of the peninsula inhabited Spain.
The last few hundred years have seen three groups in Jerusalem--Ottomans, British and now Israeli.
New Zealand has seen many different cultures.
is a region that has a singular homogeneous characteristic--the presence of Spanish as an unofficial second.
It doesn't have a central location.
The concept of Spanish language doesn't change within the region.
Eliminate (D) if you know the absolute location is latitude and longitude.
No other region was mentioned.
Contagious diffusion is a pattern of movement that begins at a single point and travels in a line to other locations.
The Polynesians followed relocation.
The Italian movement exhibited an expansion.
Hierarchical diffusion means that orders from above are considered.
The creation of new services is stimulated by an underlying desire or principle.
The answer is correct.
A flow-line map uses lines of varying thickness to track a movement.
14 million people were forced to relocate due to the partition of India, it was the largest human migration in history.
Most heavy technology is developed by the military first, and therefore is applied to the military's needs.
The purpose of the first satellites was to spy on Soviet missile sites.
The answer is correct.
The gravity model takes into account the populations of two cities and divides them by the squares of their distance apart.
New York City has a larger population, but its distance from Rio de Janeiro reduces the pull.
Being only 200 miles from Rio, Belo Horizonte exerts a stronger influence.
The central place theory was developed in the 1930s by Walter Christaller.
He believed that settlements were just places where services could be offered to the surrounding areas.
The only answer related to economic transactions is a city market.
The shapes of the polygons on the map are preserved by the projection of the Mercator.
It is similar to peeling an orange and flattening it on a piece of paper.
To cover the entire space, you would need to expand certain parts of the peel.